Australian Geology MCQs with Answer

Which geological era is known as the “Age of Reptiles”?
A) Paleozoic
B) Mesozoic
C) Cenozoic
D) Neozoic
Answer: B) Mesozoic

What is the primary constituent of granite?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Mica
D) Calcite
Answer: B) Feldspar

Which type of rock is formed from the cooling and solidification of magma?
A) Sedimentary
B) Metamorphic
C) Igneous
D) Volcanic
Answer: C) Igneous

What is the hardest mineral on the Mohs scale?
A) Quartz
B) Diamond
C) Feldspar
D) Topaz
Answer: B) Diamond

Which Australian state is known for its extensive gold deposits?
A) Queensland
B) New South Wales
C) Victoria
D) Western Australia
Answer: D) Western Australia

What type of plate boundary is responsible for the formation of the Great Dividing Range in eastern Australia?
A) Divergent
B) Convergent
C) Transform
D) Subduction
Answer: B) Convergent

Which mineral is the primary component of limestone?
A) Quartz
B) Calcite
C) Feldspar
D) Gypsum
Answer: B) Calcite

The process of transforming sediments into solid rock is known as:
A) Erosion
B) Lithification
C) Weathering
D) Deposition
Answer: B) Lithification

What is the main constituent of coal?
A) Silica
B) Carbon
C) Calcium carbonate
D) Iron ore
Answer: B) Carbon

Which geological period is often referred to as the “Age of Fishes”?
A) Cambrian
B) Devonian
C) Silurian
D) Permian
Answer: B) Devonian

What is the common name for the eroded remnants of large, ancient volcanic cores found in central Australia?
A) Mesa
B) Butte
C) Inselberg
D) Plateau
Answer: C) Inselberg

Which mineral is commonly used as a gemstone and is also the birthstone for the month of November?
A) Sapphire
B) Emerald
C) Topaz
D) Citrine
Answer: D) Citrine

What type of rock is formed from the alteration of existing rock through heat and pressure?
A) Sedimentary
B) Igneous
C) Metamorphic
D) Volcanic
Answer: C) Metamorphic

The Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef system, is located off the coast of which Australian state?
A) Queensland
B) New South Wales
C) Victoria
D) Western Australia
Answer: A) Queensland

Which mineral is a major component of Earth’s continental crust?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Mica
D) Calcite
Answer: A) Quartz

What type of rock is formed from the accumulation and cementation of mineral and organic particles?
A) Igneous
B) Metamorphic
C) Sedimentary
D) Volcanic
Answer: C) Sedimentary

The process of breaking down rocks into smaller particles by physical or chemical means is called:
A) Erosion
B) Weathering
C) Lithification
D) Deposition
Answer: B) Weathering

Which geological period is known as the “Age of Mammals”?
A) Cenozoic
B) Mesozoic
C) Paleozoic
D) Neozoic
Answer: A) Cenozoic

What is the primary mineral found in sandstone?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Calcite
D) Gypsum
Answer: A) Quartz

Which geological feature is formed by the dissolution of limestone, creating underground caves and passages?
A) Arch
B) Sinkhole
C) Mesa
D) Inselberg
Answer: B) Sinkhole

The Australian continent is part of which tectonic plate?
A) Pacific Plate
B) Eurasian Plate
C) Indo-Australian Plate
D) North American Plate
Answer: C) Indo-Australian Plate

What is the main mineral found in bauxite, the primary ore for aluminum?
A) Hematite
B) Bauxiteite
C) Gibbsite
D) Magnetite
Answer: C) Gibbsite

The phenomenon of one tectonic plate being forced below another into the mantle is known as:
A) Subduction
B) Rifting
C) Convection
D) Uplift
Answer: A) Subduction

Which type of rock is formed from the cooling and solidification of lava?
A) Igneous
B) Metamorphic
C) Sedimentary
D) Volcanic
Answer: A) Igneous

What is the primary mineral found in talc, a common metamorphic mineral?
A) Quartz
B) Talc
C) Feldspar
D) Mica
Answer: B) Talc

The process of uplift and erosion that exposes older, deeper rock layers is known as:
A) Folding
B) Faulting
C) Unconformity
D) Intrusion
Answer: C) Unconformity

Which mineral is a major component of Earth’s oceanic crust?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Olivine
D) Calcite
Answer: C) Olivine

What is the primary mineral found in marble, a common metamorphic rock?
A) Quartz
B) Calcite
C) Feldspar
D) Gypsum
Answer: B) Calcite

Which geological period is often referred to as the “Age of Amphibians”?
A) Silurian
B) Devonian
C) Carboniferous
D) Permian
Answer: C) Carboniferous

What is the primary constituent of sandstone?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Mica
D) Calcite
Answer: A) Quartz

The process of organic material being preserved and transformed into hydrocarbons is known as:
A) Metamorphism
B) Erosion
C) Weathering
D) Fossilization
Answer: D) Fossilization

Which mineral is a common source of phosphorus used in fertilizers?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Apatite
D) Calcite
Answer: C) Apatite

Which type of rock is formed from the alteration of existing rock through heat and pressure?
A) Sedimentary
B) Igneous
C) Metamorphic
D) Volcanic
Answer: C) Metamorphic

Which geological period is known for the rapid diversification of life forms, often referred to as the “Cambrian Explosion”?
A) Cambrian
B) Ordovician
C) Silurian
D) Devonian
Answer: A) Cambrian

What is the primary mineral found in basalt, a common extrusive igneous rock?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Olivine
D) Calcite
Answer: C) Olivine

Which geological feature is formed by the erosional action of wind, water, and ice?
A) Plateau
B) Canyon
C) Arch
D) Mesa
Answer: B) Canyon

What is the main mineral found in gypsum, a common sedimentary rock?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Gypsum
D) Calcite
Answer: C) Gypsum

Which mineral is a major component of Earth’s mantle?
A) Quartz
B) Olivine
C) Feldspar
D) Calcite
Answer: B) Olivine

Which geological process involves the bending and folding of rock layers due to tectonic forces?
A) Erosion
B) Faulting
C) Folding
D) Uplift
Answer: C) Folding

What is the primary mineral found in halite, commonly known as rock salt?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Halite
D) Calcite
Answer: C) Halite

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