Canadian Indigenous Justice MCQs With Answer

What term refers to the unique legal systems and approaches to justice developed by Indigenous communities in Canada?
a) Common law
b) Civil law
c) Indigenous justice
d) Colonial justice
Answer: c

Which principle of Indigenous justice emphasizes healing, restoration, and reconciliation rather than punishment?
a) Retribution
b) Rehabilitation
c) Restoration
d) Restitution
Answer: c

What Indigenous legal principle focuses on the interconnectedness of all living beings and the land?
a) Harmony
b) Interdependence
c) Holism
d) Reciprocity
Answer: c

In Indigenous justice systems, what term is often used to describe a council of community members who come together to address conflicts and restore harmony?
a) Court
b) Council
c) Tribunal
d) Assembly
Answer: b

What is the term for the process of addressing harm and restoring balance through dialogue, negotiation, and consensus in Indigenous justice systems?
a) Retribution
b) Rehabilitation
c) Mediation
d) Circle sentencing
Answer: c

Which Indigenous justice approach focuses on involving the community in addressing criminal behavior and providing support for healing and reintegration?
a) Punitive justice
b) Traditional justice
c) Restorative justice
d) Colonial justice
Answer: c

What term refers to an Indigenous healing circle where community members come together to discuss an offense and determine a plan for restoration?
a) Talking circle
b) Decision circle
c) Sentencing circle
d) Healing circle
Answer: c

Which piece of legislation recognizes and affirms the inherent rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada, including their legal traditions and customary laws?
a) Constitution Act
b) Indian Act
c) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
d) Criminal Code
Answer: c

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to an individual who takes on the role of a mediator or facilitator in conflict resolution processes?
a) Elder
b) Shaman
c) Chief
d) Peacekeeper
Answer: a

What is the primary focus of Indigenous justice systems when addressing harm or wrongdoing?
a) Retribution
b) Punishment
c) Healing and restoration
d) Deterrence
Answer: c

What term refers to the process of Indigenous communities taking control of their own justice systems and legal processes?
a) Self-governance
b) Colonial justice
c) Common law
d) Centralization
Answer: a

In Indigenous justice systems, what is the goal of addressing harm or conflict?
a) Retaliation
b) Rehabilitation
c) Healing and reconciliation
d) Incarceration
Answer: c

What term refers to the practice of Indigenous justice principles within the formal Canadian legal system?
a) Assimilation
b) Incorporation
c) Indigenization
d) Colonization
Answer: c

Which Indigenous justice approach seeks to address the root causes of criminal behavior by addressing social, economic, and cultural factors?
a) Punitive justice
b) Healing justice
c) Restorative justice
d) Transformative justice
Answer: d

In Indigenous justice systems, who often plays a central role in facilitating healing circles and guiding community members in conflict resolution?
a) Police officers
b) Judges
c) Elders
d) Prosecutors
Answer: c

What term refers to the traditional teachings, stories, and practices that guide Indigenous approaches to justice?
a) Colonial law
b) Oral tradition
c) Case law
d) Civil law
Answer: b

Which Indigenous justice approach emphasizes repairing harm caused to individuals and relationships rather than imposing punishments?
a) Retributive justice
b) Restorative justice
c) Retaliation justice
d) Rehabilitative justice
Answer: b

What term refers to the practice of considering cultural context, history, and community values in legal decision-making within Indigenous justice systems?
a) Eurocentrism
b) Cultural relativism
c) Legal pluralism
d) Indigenous legal principles
Answer: d

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to the person who commits an offense and is responsible for addressing the harm caused?
a) Offender
b) Victim
c) Accused
d) Witness
Answer: a

Which Indigenous justice approach focuses on transforming the lives of individuals involved in criminal behavior through community support and accountability?
a) Retributive justice
b) Healing justice
c) Punitive justice
d) Colonial justice
Answer: b

What term refers to the traditional council of Elders that play a key role in making decisions and resolving conflicts in many Indigenous communities?
a) Tribal council
b) Assembly of Chiefs
c) Circle of Wisdom
d) Clan council
Answer: a

Which principle of Indigenous justice emphasizes the importance of community involvement and consensus-building in decision-making?
a) Community justice
b) Collective responsibility
c) Indigenous sovereignty
d) State authority
Answer: b

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to the process of making amends and restoring balance between individuals and the community?
a) Reconciliation
b) Restitution
c) Reparation
d) Rehabilitation
Answer: b

Which Indigenous justice approach focuses on creating opportunities for offenders to understand the impact of their actions and make positive changes?
a) Retributive justice
b) Punitive justice
c) Restorative justice
d) Transformative justice
Answer: c

What term refers to the process of acknowledging past injustices and working towards healing and reconciliation in Indigenous communities?
a) Retaliation
b) Resilience
c) Reconciliation
d) Reparation
Answer: c

In Indigenous justice systems, what role does an Elder often play in conflict resolution and decision-making?
a) Judge
b) Prosecutor
c) Mediator
d) Advisor
Answer: d

Which aspect of Indigenous justice focuses on acknowledging the impact of historical trauma and colonization on individuals and communities?
a) Cultural preservation
b) Trauma-informed care
c) Cultural assimilation
d) Neocolonialism
Answer: b

What term refers to the process of addressing harm or wrongdoing by bringing together the person responsible and the person harmed?
a) Mediation
b) Negotiation
c) Dialogue
d) Conflict resolution
Answer: a

In Indigenous justice systems, what is the primary objective of addressing harm or conflict?
a) Deterrence
b) Healing and restoration
c) Punishment
d) Isolation
Answer: b

What term refers to the legal principle that Indigenous legal traditions and customs have equal status to Canadian common law?
a) Legal pluralism
b) Sovereignty
c) Subsidiarity
d) Assimilation
Answer: a

In Indigenous justice systems, what term is often used to describe the process of “calling in” an individual who has caused harm to participate in a healing circle?
a) Summoning
b) Confrontation
c) Invitation
d) Inclusion
Answer: c

Which concept in Indigenous justice emphasizes the importance of maintaining balance and harmony within individuals, families, and communities?
a) Retribution
b) Healing
c) Holism
d) Deterrence
Answer: c

What term refers to the practice of considering cultural context, history, and community values in legal decision-making within Indigenous justice systems?
a) Eurocentrism
b) Cultural relativism
c) Legal pluralism
d) Indigenous legal principles
Answer: d

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to the person who commits an offense and is responsible for addressing the harm caused?
a) Offender
b) Victim
c) Accused
d) Witness
Answer: a

What is the primary focus of Indigenous justice systems when addressing harm or wrongdoing?
a) Retribution
b) Punishment
c) Healing and reconciliation
d) Deterrence
Answer: c

Which Indigenous justice approach emphasizes repairing harm caused to individuals and relationships rather than imposing punishments?
a) Retributive justice
b) Restorative justice
c) Retaliation justice
d) Rehabilitative justice
Answer: b

In Indigenous justice systems, who often plays a central role in facilitating healing circles and guiding community members in conflict resolution?
a) Police officers
b) Judges
c) Elders
d) Prosecutors
Answer: c

What term refers to the traditional teachings, stories, and practices that guide Indigenous approaches to justice?
a) Colonial law
b) Oral tradition
c) Case law
d) Civil law
Answer: b

Which Indigenous justice approach focuses on transforming the lives of individuals involved in criminal behavior through community support and accountability?
a) Retributive justice
b) Healing justice
c) Punitive justice
d) Colonial justice
Answer: b

What term refers to the traditional council of Elders that play a key role in making decisions and resolving conflicts in many Indigenous communities?
a) Tribal council
b) Assembly of Chiefs
c) Circle of Wisdom
d) Clan council
Answer: a

Which principle of Indigenous justice emphasizes the importance of community involvement and consensus-building in decision-making?
a) Community justice
b) Collective responsibility
c) Indigenous sovereignty
d) State authority
Answer: b

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to the process of making amends and restoring balance between individuals and the community?
a) Reconciliation
b) Restitution
c) Reparation
d) Rehabilitation
Answer: b

Which Indigenous justice approach focuses on creating opportunities for offenders to understand the impact of their actions and make positive changes?
a) Retributive justice
b) Punitive justice
c) Restorative justice
d) Transformative justice
Answer: c

What term refers to the process of acknowledging past injustices and working towards healing and reconciliation in Indigenous communities?
a) Retaliation
b) Resilience
c) Reconciliation
d) Reparation
Answer: c

In Indigenous justice systems, what role does an Elder often play in conflict resolution and decision-making?
a) Judge
b) Prosecutor
c) Mediator
d) Advisor
Answer: d

Which aspect of Indigenous justice focuses on acknowledging the impact of historical trauma and colonization on individuals and communities?
a) Cultural preservation
b) Trauma-informed care
c) Cultural assimilation
d) Neocolonialism
Answer: b

What term refers to the process of addressing harm or wrongdoing by bringing together the person responsible and the person harmed?
a) Mediation
b) Negotiation
c) Dialogue
d) Conflict resolution
Answer: a

In Indigenous justice systems, what is the primary objective of addressing harm or conflict?
a) Deterrence
b) Healing and restoration
c) Punishment
d) Isolation
Answer: b

What term refers to the practice of considering cultural context, history, and community values in legal decision-making within Indigenous justice systems?
a) Eurocentrism
b) Cultural relativism
c) Legal pluralism
d) Indigenous legal principles
Answer: d

In Indigenous justice systems, what term refers to the person who commits an offense and is responsible for addressing the harm caused?
a) Offender
b) Victim
c) Accused
d) Witness
Answer: a

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