Biology MCQs

Epigenetics MCQs with Answers

Which of the following best describes epigenetics?
a) The study of genetic mutations
b) The study of genetic variation
c) The study of heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence
d) The study of DNA replication
Answer: c

Epigenetic modifications can include:
a) DNA methylation
b) Histone modification
c) Non-coding RNA expression
d) All of the above
Answer: d

DNA methylation involves the addition of a __________ group to a cytosine residue.
a) Methyl
b) Acetyl
c) Phosphate
d) Hydroxyl
Answer: a

Which of the following is NOT a role of DNA methylation?
a) Gene silencing
b) Regulation of gene expression
c) DNA repair
d) X chromosome inactivation
Answer: c

Histone modifications can include:
a) Methylation
b) Acetylation
c) Phosphorylation
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Histone acetylation is generally associated with:
a) Gene activation
b) Gene silencing
c) DNA replication
d) DNA repair
Answer: a

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark that can be inherited across generations?
a) DNA methylation
b) Histone modification
c) Non-coding RNA expression
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Epigenetic changes can be influenced by:
a) Environmental factors
b) Lifestyle choices
c) Aging
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Which of the following is NOT an example of an epigenetic mechanism?
a) DNA repair
b) Histone modification
c) Non-coding RNA expression
d) Chromatin remodeling
Answer: a

The process by which cells erase and reestablish epigenetic marks during development is known as:
a) Epigenetic inheritance
b) Epigenetic reprogramming
c) Epigenetic modification
d) Epigenetic stability
Answer: b

Which of the following is NOT a function of non-coding RNAs in epigenetic regulation?
a) Gene silencing
b) Chromatin remodeling
c) DNA methylation
d) Transcriptional activation
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an environmental factor that can influence epigenetic changes?
a) Diet
b) Exercise
c) Toxins
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The study of the three-dimensional organization of DNA in the nucleus is known as:
a) Chromatin remodeling
b) DNA methylation
c) Chromosome conformation capture (3C)
d) Epigenetic inheritance
Answer: c

The protein complexes that help compact DNA into chromatin are called:
a) Nucleosomes
b) Histones
c) Chromosomes
d) Centromeres
Answer: b

The process by which specific genes or genomic regions are silenced without altering the underlying DNA sequence is known as:
a) Gene regulation
b) Gene expression
c) Gene silencing
d) Gene mutation
Answer: c

The process by which DNA becomes more accessible for gene expression through alterations in chromatin structure is known as:
a) Chromatin remodeling
b) Histone modification
c) DNA methylation
d) Non-coding RNA expression
Answer: a

The process of X chromosome inactivation in females involves:
a) Random silencing of one X chromosome in each cell
b) Silencing of both X chromosomes in each cell
c) Activation of one X chromosome in each cell
d) Silencing of the Y chromosome in each cell
Answer: a

The enzyme responsible for adding methyl groups to DNA is called:
a) DNA methyltransferase
b) Histone acetyltransferase
c) Histone deacetylase
d) RNA polymerase
Answer: a

Epigenetic modifications can affect gene expression by:
a) Altering chromatin structure
b) Modifying DNA accessibility
c) Influencing transcription factor binding
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic phenomenon involved in genomic imprinting?
a) DNA methylation
b) Histone modification
c) Non-coding RNA expression
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which DNA methylation patterns are established during development is known as:
a) De novo DNA methylation
b) DNA demethylation
c) DNA recombination
d) DNA repair
Answer: a

Epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations through:
a) Germ cells
b) Somatic cells
c) Both germ cells and somatic cells
d) None of the above
Answer: a

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic disease or disorder?
a) Rett syndrome
b) Angelman syndrome
c) Prader-Willi syndrome
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which epigenetic modifications can be reversed or modified is known as:
a) Epigenetic reprogramming
b) Epigenetic remodeling
c) Epigenetic stability
d) Epigenetic inheritance
Answer: b

The study of epigenetic changes in response to environmental factors is known as:
a) Environmental genetics
b) Environmental epigenetics
c) Epigenomic profiling
d) Epigenetic engineering
Answer: b

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of DNA demethylation?
a) Passive demethylation during DNA replication
b) Active demethylation by enzymatic removal of methyl groups
c) DNA repair processes
d) Histone modification
Answer: d

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene activation?
a) Acetylation of histones
b) Methylation of DNA
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The process by which epigenetic modifications can be stably maintained through cell division is known as:
a) Epigenetic reprogramming
b) Epigenetic remodeling
c) Epigenetic stability
d) Epigenetic inheritance
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene silencing?
a) Methylation of histones
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The study of the influence of epigenetic changes on human health and disease is known as:
a) Medical genetics
b) Clinical genetics
c) Epigenetic medicine
d) Genomic medicine
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mechanism involved in cellular memory during development?
a) DNA methylation
b) Histone modification
c) Non-coding RNA expression
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which specific genes are activated or repressed in response to environmental cues is known as:
a) Epigenetic regulation
b) Environmental adaptation
c) Gene expression
d) Genetic mutation
Answer: a

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene repression?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The study of the epigenetic changes associated with aging is known as:
a) Age-related genetics
b) Age-related epigenetics
c) Epigenetic aging
d) Epigenomic profiling
Answer: c

Which of the following is NOT an example of an epigenetic mark?
a) DNA sequence
b) DNA methylation
c) Histone acetylation
d) Chromatin structure
Answer: a

Epigenetic changes can play a role in:
a) Developmental processes
b) Disease development
c) Cellular reprogramming
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which specific regions of the genome are physically separated from the rest of the chromatin is known as:
a) DNA replication
b) Chromatin remodeling
c) Nuclear compartmentalization
d) Gene silencing
Answer: c

Which of the following is NOT an example of an environmental factor that can influence epigenetic changes?
a) Stress
b) Temperature
c) Nutrition
d) Mutation
Answer: d

The study of the role of epigenetics in evolution is known as:
a) Epigenetic adaptation
b) Epigenetic evolution
c) Evolutionary genetics
d) Epigenomic profiling
Answer: b

The process by which cells maintain epigenetic marks during DNA replication is known as:
a) Epigenetic reprogramming
b) Epigenetic remodeling
c) Epigenetic stability
d) Epigenetic inheritance
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with heterochromatin formation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The process by which specific genes or genomic regions are activated without altering the underlying DNA sequence is known as:
a) Gene regulation
b) Gene expression
c) Gene activation
d) Gene mutation
Answer: c

The study of the epigenetic changes associated with cancer is known as:
a) Cancer genetics
b) Cancer epigenetics
c) Epigenetic oncology
d) Genomic oncology
Answer: b

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene repression?
a) Methylation of histones
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The process by which DNA methylation patterns are erased and reestablished in germ cells is known as:
a) De novo DNA methylation
b) DNA demethylation
c) DNA recombination
d) DNA repair
Answer: b

Epigenetic changes can contribute to the development of which of the following diseases?
a) Cancer
b) Neurological disorders
c) Cardiovascular diseases
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The study of the influence of epigenetic changes on plant development and adaptation is known as:
a) Plant genetics
b) Plant epigenetics
c) Epigenetic plant biology
d) Plant genomics
Answer: b

The process by which DNA is packaged into chromatin involves the wrapping of DNA around proteins called:
a) Nucleosomes
b) Histones
c) Chromosomes
d) Centromeres
Answer: b

The process by which specific genes are silenced or activated during cellular differentiation is known as:
a) Cell fate determination
b) Cell signaling
c) Cell division
d) Cell cycle control
Answer: a

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene activation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: b

The process by which specific genes or genomic regions are silenced or activated in response to environmental cues is known as:
a) Environmental regulation
b) Environmental adaptation
c) Environmental epigenetics
d) Environmental mutation
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene activation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: b

The process by which specific genes are activated or repressed during development is known as:
a) Developmental genetics
b) Developmental epigenetics
c) Gene expression
d) Genetic mutation
Answer: b

The study of the role of epigenetic changes in aging is known as:
a) Aging genetics
b) Aging epigenetics
c) Epigenetic aging
d) Epigenomic profiling
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene repression?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The study of the role of epigenetic changes in neurological disorders is known as:
a) Neurogenetics
b) Neuroepigenetics
c) Epigenetic neurology
d) Genomic neuroscience
Answer: b

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with heterochromatin formation?
a) Methylation of histones
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The study of the epigenetic changes associated with aging in plants is known as:
a) Plant genetics
b) Plant aging
c) Plant epigenetics
d) Plant genomics
Answer: c

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene activation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: b

The study of the role of epigenetic changes in plant development and adaptation is known as:
a) Plant genetics
b) Plant epigenetics
c) Epigenetic plant biology
d) Plant genomics
Answer: b

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene repression?
a) Methylation of histones
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The process by which specific genes or genomic regions are silenced without altering the underlying DNA sequence is known as:
a) Gene regulation
b) Gene expression
c) Gene silencing
d) Gene mutation
Answer: c

The study of the role of epigenetic changes in cancer is known as:
a) Cancer genetics
b) Cancer epigenetics
c) Epigenetic oncology
d) Genomic oncology
Answer: b

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with gene activation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: b

The process by which DNA methylation patterns are erased and reestablished during development is known as:
a) De novo DNA methylation
b) DNA demethylation
c) DNA recombination
d) DNA repair
Answer: b

Epigenetic changes can contribute to the development of which of the following disorders?
a) Neurodevelopmental disorders
b) Cardiovascular disorders
c) Metabolic disorders
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which specific genes are activated or repressed during cellular differentiation is known as:
a) Cell fate determination
b) Cell signaling
c) Cell division
d) Cell cycle control
Answer: a

The study of the epigenetic changes associated with aging in animals is known as:
a) Aging genetics
b) Aging epigenetics
c) Epigenetic aging
d) Epigenomic profiling
Answer: b

Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic mark associated with heterochromatin formation?
a) Methylation of DNA
b) Acetylation of histones
c) Phosphorylation of histones
d) Deacetylation of histones
Answer: a

The study of the epigenetic changes associated with aging in humans is known as:
a) Aging genetics
b) Aging epigenetics
c) Epigenetic aging
d) Epigenomic profiling
Answer: c

 

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button