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**Atomic Structure and Nuclear Physics Online MCQs with Answers**

Which subatomic particle carries a positive charge?

a) Electron

b) Neutron

c) Proton

d) Photon

What is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom called?

a) Atomic mass

b) Atomic number

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the planetary model of the atom?

a) Albert Einstein

b) Niels Bohr

c) Max Planck

d) Erwin Schrödinger

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the first energy level in an atom?

a) 2

b) 8

c) 18

d) 32

Which quantum number determines the shape of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

Which scientist discovered the electron?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the p sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

What is the mass of an electron compared to that of a proton?

a) Approximately equal

b) Approximately half

c) Approximately one-tenth

d) Negligible

Which of the following is not a valid quantum number?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Azimuthal quantum number (ml)

c) Subatomic quantum number (s)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

Who proposed the wave-particle duality of light?

a) Albert Einstein

b) Max Planck

c) Niels Bohr

d) Louis de Broglie

What is the charge of an alpha particle?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the d sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the concept of quantum numbers?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Wolfgang Pauli

Which of the following particles has the smallest mass?

a) Proton

b) Neutron

c) Electron

d) Alpha particle

What is the name given to the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom?

a) Quantum

b) Photon

c) Quantum leap

d) Quantum number

Which scientist is credited with the discovery of the neutron?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) James Chadwick

d) Marie Curie

What is the term used to describe the average mass of an element, taking into account the abundance of its isotopes?

a) Atomic mass

b) Atomic number

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the f sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the Schrödinger wave equation?

a) Erwin Schrödinger

b) Werner Heisenberg

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

Which quantum number describes the orientation of an atomic orbital in space?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the term used to describe the arrangement of electrons in an atom’s energy levels?

a) Electron configuration

b) Atomic mass

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Which scientist discovered the nucleus of an atom?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

How many orbitals are in the p sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a beta particle?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the spin of an electron?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the s sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the uncertainty principle?

a) Albert Einstein

b) Werner Heisenberg

c) Max Planck

d) Erwin Schrödinger

Which quantum number describes the size of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the charge of a proton?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

What is the term used to describe the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus?

a) Atomic mass

b) Atomic number

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the concept of energy quantization in atoms?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the d sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Which of the following is a valid quantum number set for an electron in an atom?

a) n = 3, l = 2, ml = -1, ms = +1/2

b) n = 4, l = 3, ml = 2, ms = -1/2

c) n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = +1/2

d) n = 1, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = -1/2

What is the charge of a neutron?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the energy level of an electron in an atom?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the f sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the concept of electron shells?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Niels Bohr

Which of the following particles has the largest mass?

a) Proton

b) Neutron

c) Electron

d) Alpha particle

What is the term used to describe the region of space around the nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found?

a) Energy level

b) Orbital

c) Sublevel

d) Shell

Who proposed the concept of electron spin?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Wolfgang Pauli

What is the charge of a gamma particle (photon)?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

How many orbitals are in the d sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

Who proposed the concept of electron cloud?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Erwin Schrödinger

What is the charge of an antineutrino?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the shape of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the s sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the concept of quantized energy levels in atoms?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

Which quantum number describes the orientation of an atomic orbital in space?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the charge of a positron?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

What is the term used to describe the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom’s nucleus?

a) Atomic mass

b) Atomic number

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the concept of electron probability clouds?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Erwin Schrödinger

How many orbitals are in the f sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a muon?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the energy level of an electron in an atom?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the term used to describe the arrangement of electrons in an atom’s energy levels?

a) Electron configuration

b) Atomic mass

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the concept of the nucleus as a dense, positively charged core?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

How many orbitals are in the p sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of an electron antineutrino?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the size of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the charge of a quark?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Who proposed the concept of energy quantization in atoms?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

How many orbitals are in the d sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a neutrino?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the shape of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the charge of an up quark?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

What is the term used to describe the average mass of an element, taking into account the abundance of its isotopes?

a) Atomic mass

b) Atomic number

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the concept of electron shells?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Niels Bohr

How many orbitals are in the f sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a down quark?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the s sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14

Who proposed the concept of electron spin?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Wolfgang Pauli

How many orbitals are in the p sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a strange quark?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the energy level of an electron in an atom?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the term used to describe the arrangement of electrons in an atom’s energy levels?

a) Electron configuration

b) Atomic mass

c) Atomic weight

d) Atomic radius

Who proposed the concept of the nucleus as a dense, positively charged core?

a) J.J. Thomson

b) Ernest Rutherford

c) Max Planck

d) Albert Einstein

How many orbitals are in the d sublevel?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

What is the charge of a charm quark?

a) +1

b) 0

c) -1

d) +2

Which quantum number describes the shape of an atomic orbital?

a) Principal quantum number (n)

b) Angular momentum quantum number (l)

c) Magnetic quantum number (ml)

d) Spin quantum number (ms)

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the s sublevel?

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

d) 14