Molecular Immunology MCQs with Answers

Antibodies are produced by:
a) T cells
b) B cells
c) Natural killer cells
d) Macrophages
Answer: b) B cells

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is responsible for:
a) Initiating the complement cascade
b) Presenting antigens to T cells
c) Producing antibodies
d) Activating natural killer cells
Answer: b) Presenting antigens to T cells

Which of the following is a type of lymphocyte involved in cell-mediated immunity?
a) B cells
b) T cells
c) Macrophages
d) Natural killer cells
Answer: b) T cells

The primary function of dendritic cells in the immune system is:
a) Phagocytosis of pathogens
b) Production of antibodies
c) Presentation of antigens to T cells
d) Killing infected cells
Answer: c) Presentation of antigens to T cells

Which of the following is a characteristic feature of adaptive immunity?
a) Specificity
b) Rapid response
c) Non-specific recognition
d) Inflammation
Answer: a) Specificity

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the regulation of immune responses?
a) Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
b) Insulin
c) Hemoglobin
d) Acetylcholine
Answer: a) Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

The process of clonal selection refers to:
a) Activation and proliferation of B cells
b) Activation and proliferation of T cells
c) Differentiation of T cells into effector cells
d) Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells
Answer: a) Activation and proliferation of B cells

The primary function of cytotoxic T cells is to:
a) Produce antibodies
b) Phagocytose pathogens
c) Kill infected cells
d) Present antigens to B cells
Answer: c) Kill infected cells

Which of the following is an example of a secondary lymphoid organ?
a) Spleen
b) Liver
c) Kidney
d) Pancreas
Answer: a) Spleen

The process of opsonization involves:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Binding of antibodies to antigens
c) Activation of complement proteins
d) Phagocytosis of pathogens
Answer: b) Binding of antibodies to antigens

Which of the following is a type of immunoglobulin (antibody) involved in allergic reactions?
a) IgA
b) IgD
c) IgE
d) IgG
Answer: c) IgE

The process of somatic hypermutation occurs in:
a) B cells
b) T cells
c) Macrophages
d) Natural killer cells
Answer: a) B cells

The complement system is a group of:
a) Enzymes
b) Cytokines
c) Antibodies
d) Antigens
Answer: a) Enzymes

The primary function of memory B cells is to:
a) Produce antibodies
b) Phagocytose pathogens
c) Kill infected cells
d) Provide a rapid response upon re-exposure to an antigen
Answer: d) Provide a rapid response upon re-exposure to an antigen

The process of antibody class switching involves:
a) Activation of B cells
b) Activation of T cells
c) Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells
d) Changing the type of antibody produced by a B cell
Answer: d) Changing the type of antibody produced by a B cell

Which of the following is an example of a toll-like receptor (TLR)?
a) CD4
b) CD8
c) TLR4
d) MHC-I
Answer: c) TLR4

The process of antigen presentation involves:
a) Presentation of antigens by B cells to T cells
b) Presentation of antigens by T cells to B cells
c) Presentation of antigens by macrophages to T cells
d) Presentation of antigens by dendritic cells to B cells
Answer: c) Presentation of antigens by macrophages to T cells

The process of antibody-mediated neutralization involves:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Binding of antibodies to antigens to prevent their harmful effects
c) Activation of complement proteins
d) Phagocytosis of pathogens
Answer: b) Binding of antibodies to antigens to prevent their harmful effects

Which of the following is an example of a co-stimulatory molecule involved in T cell activation?
a) CD4
b) CD8
c) CD28
d) MHC-I
Answer: c) CD28

The process of immunological tolerance refers to:
a) The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens
b) The ability of the immune system to recognize self from non-self
c) The ability of B cells to produce antibodies
d) The ability of T cells to kill infected cells
Answer: b) The ability of the immune system to recognize self from non-self

Which of the following is an example of a pro-inflammatory cytokine?
a) Interleukin-10 (IL-10)
b) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)
c) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
d) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
Answer: b) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)

The process of immune surveillance involves:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells

Which of the following is an example of a pattern recognition receptor (PRR)?
a) CD4
b) CD8
c) TLR2
d) MHC-II
Answer: c) TLR2

The primary function of regulatory T cells is to:
a) Kill infected cells
b) Activate B cells
c) Suppress immune responses and maintain self-tolerance
d) Produce antibodies
Answer: c) Suppress immune responses and maintain self-tolerance

Which of the following is an example of an immunosuppressive cytokine?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)

The process of immune memory allows for:
a) Faster and more effective immune response upon re-exposure to an antigen
b) Activation of macrophages
c) Production of antibodies by B cells
d) Phagocytosis of pathogens
Answer: a) Faster and more effective immune response upon re-exposure to an antigen

Which of the following is an example of a co-receptor molecule involved in T cell activation?
a) CD4
b) CD8
c) CD28
d) MHC-I
Answer: a) CD4

The process of immune tolerance ensures that:
a) The immune system responds to all antigens encountered
b) The immune system only responds to foreign antigens
c) The immune system does not respond to self-antigens
d) The immune system produces a high number of antibodies
Answer: c) The immune system does not respond to self-antigens

Which of the following is an example of a memory T cell subset?
a) Helper T cells (Th)
b) Cytotoxic T cells (Tc)
c) Natural killer (NK) cells
d) Regulatory T cells (Treg)
Answer: a) Helper T cells (Th)

The process of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) involves:
a) Activation of B cells
b) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
c) Killing of infected cells by NK cells or other effector cells, facilitated by antibodies
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: c) Killing of infected cells by NK cells or other effector cells, facilitated by antibodies

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of B cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-4 (IL-4)

The process of antigen recognition by B cells is mediated by:
a) T cell receptors (TCRs)
b) Antibodies
c) Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
d) Complement proteins
Answer: b) Antibodies

The process of immune evasion refers to:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
c) Strategies employed by pathogens to evade or subvert the immune system
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: c) Strategies employed by pathogens to evade or subvert the immune system

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection or inflammation?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-8 (IL-8)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-8 (IL-8)

The process of immune complex formation involves:
a) Activation of B cells
b) Binding of antibodies to antigens to form immune complexes
c) Activation of complement proteins
d) Phagocytosis of pathogens
Answer: b) Binding of antibodies to antigens to form immune complexes

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)

The process of immune modulation refers to:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Regulation of immune responses to maintain homeostasis
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Regulation of immune responses to maintain homeostasis

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-10 (IL-10)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-10 (IL-10)

The process of immune senescence refers to:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Age-related decline in immune function
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Age-related decline in immune function

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)

The process of immune tolerance can be broken in:
a) Autoimmune diseases
b) Allergic reactions
c) Chronic infections
d) Cancer
Answer: a) Autoimmune diseases

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of dendritic cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-12 (IL-12)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-12 (IL-12)

The process of immune dysregulation refers to:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Abnormal regulation of immune responses, leading to immune-related diseases
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Abnormal regulation of immune responses, leading to immune-related diseases

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or inflammation?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-17 (IL-17)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-17 (IL-17)

The process of immune checkpoint regulation involves:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Regulation of T cell responses to prevent excessive immune activation
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Regulation of T cell responses to prevent excessive immune activation

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of mast cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-9 (IL-9)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-9 (IL-9)

The process of immune-mediated tissue damage can occur in:
a) Autoimmune diseases
b) Allergic reactions
c) Chronic infections
d) Cancer
Answer: a) Autoimmune diseases

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of eosinophils?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-5 (IL-5)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-5 (IL-5)

The process of immune surveillance helps in:
a) Detecting and eliminating cancer cells
b) Activating B cells
c) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
d) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
Answer: a) Detecting and eliminating cancer cells

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of basophils?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-3 (IL-3)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-3 (IL-3)

The process of immune complex-mediated tissue damage involves:
a) Activation of B cells
b) Deposition of immune complexes in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage
c) Activation of complement proteins
d) Phagocytosis of pathogens
Answer: b) Deposition of immune complexes in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of neutrophils?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)

The process of immune memory is mediated by:
a) Memory B cells and memory T cells
b) Natural killer (NK) cells
c) Dendritic cells
d) Regulatory T cells
Answer: a) Memory B cells and memory T cells

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of monocytes and macrophages?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

The process of immune checkpoint blockade involves:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Blocking inhibitory signals to enhance T cell responses
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Blocking inhibitory signals to enhance T cell responses

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of dendritic cells and B cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

The process of immune privilege refers to:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Protection of certain tissues or organs from immune responses
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Protection of certain tissues or organs from immune responses

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-7 (IL-7)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)

The process of immune effector function involves:
a) Activation of B cells
b) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages and neutrophils
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages and neutrophils

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and eosinophils?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-15 (IL-15)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-15 (IL-15)

The process of immune memory formation occurs after:
a) The first exposure to an antigen
b) The second exposure to an antigen
c) Activation of T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) The second exposure to an antigen

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and mast cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-9 (IL-9)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-9 (IL-9)

The process of immune modulation can occur through:
a) Activation of T cells
b) Regulation of immune responses by regulatory T cells
c) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
d) Production of antibodies by B cells
Answer: b) Regulation of immune responses by regulatory T cells

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-12 (IL-12)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-12 (IL-12)

The process of immune dysregulation can lead to:
a) Autoimmune diseases
b) Allergic reactions
c) Chronic infections
d) Cancer
Answer: a) Autoimmune diseases

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-15 (IL-15)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-15 (IL-15)

The process of immune-mediated tissue damage can be caused by:
a) Autoimmune diseases
b) Allergic reactions
c) Chronic infections
d) Cancer
Answer: a) Autoimmune diseases

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and B cells?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: c) Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

The process of immune evasion can be employed by:
a) Pathogens
b) Activated T cells
c) Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
d) Killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells
Answer: a) Pathogens

Which of the following is an example of a cytokine involved in the activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes/macrophages?
a) Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)
c) Interleukin-7 (IL-7)
d) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Answer: b) Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)

 

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