Plant Genetics and Breeding MCQs with Answers

What is the process of transferring pollen grains from the anther to the stigma called?
a) Fertilization
b) Pollination
c) Reproduction
d) Germination
Answer: b) Pollination

Which of the following is a technique used in plant breeding to create new varieties by combining desirable traits from different parent plants?
a) Mutation breeding
b) Polyploidy
c) Hybridization
d) Gene editing
Answer: c) Hybridization

In which part of a flower are the female reproductive organs located?
a) Anther
b) Stigma
c) Petal
d) Sepal
Answer: b) Stigma

Which of the following is NOT a method of asexual reproduction in plants?
a) Grafting
b) Budding
c) Self-pollination
d) Sexual reproduction
Answer: d) Sexual reproduction

The study of inheritance and variation in plants is known as:
a) Plant morphology
b) Plant physiology
c) Plant genetics
d) Plant taxonomy
Answer: c) Plant genetics

Which of the following is a genetically modified crop that has been widely adopted in many countries?
a) Bt cotton
b) Wild rice
c) Wheat
d) Barley
Answer: a) Bt cotton

Which of the following is a method of plant breeding that involves the deliberate introduction of mutations in the plant’s DNA?
a) Gene editing
b) Polyploidy
c) Hybridization
d) Mutation breeding
Answer: d) Mutation breeding

The process of creating new varieties of plants through repeated self-fertilization is known as:
a) Cross-breeding
b) Hybridization
c) Backcrossing
d) Selfing
Answer: d) Selfing

Which of the following is an example of a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
a) Organic apple
b) Non-GMO corn
c) Roundup Ready soybeans
d) Heirloom tomatoes
Answer: c) Roundup Ready soybeans

The DNA molecule in plants is primarily located in which organelle?
a) Nucleus
b) Chloroplast
c) Mitochondria
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: a) Nucleus

Which of the following is NOT a traditional breeding technique used in plant improvement?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Hybridization
Answer: a) Marker-assisted selection

What is the term for the offspring produced by crossing two different plant varieties or species?
a) Clones
b) Mutants
c) Hybrids
d) Haploids
Answer: c) Hybrids

Which of the following is an example of a genetically modified trait in plants?
a) Drought tolerance
b) Leaf color
c) Plant height
d) Flower scent
Answer: a) Drought tolerance

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing two plants with identical or similar genotypes?
a) Outcrossing
b) Inbreeding
c) Heterosis
d) Apomixis
Answer: b) Inbreeding

What is the term for the observable traits or characteristics of an organism determined by its genetic makeup?
a) Genotype
b) Phenotype
c) Allele
d) Chromosome
Answer: b) Phenotype

Which of the following is a method of producing haploid plants from pollen or ovule cultures?
a) Embryo rescue
b) Anther culture
c) Somaclonal variation
d) Embryogenesis
Answer: b) Anther culture

Which of the following is a technique used to produce multiple identical copies of a desired plant through tissue culture?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Meristem culture
c) Micropropagation
d) Somatic hybridization
Answer: c) Micropropagation

Which of the following is NOT a method of gene transfer in plants?
a) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
b) Particle bombardment
c) Protoplast fusion
d) Self-pollination
Answer: d) Self-pollination

Which of the following is a breeding technique that involves the transfer of a specific gene from one plant to another?
a) Genetic engineering
b) Polyploidy
c) Backcrossing
d) Haploidization
Answer: a) Genetic engineering

What is the term for the complete set of genes or genetic material present in an organism?
a) Allele
b) Genotype
c) Phenotype
d) Genome
Answer: d) Genome

Which of the following is a type of genetic variation that arises spontaneously due to errors in DNA replication or environmental factors?
a) Somatic mutation
b) Germline mutation
c) Recombination
d) Polyploidy
Answer: a) Somatic mutation

Which of the following is a statistical measure used to estimate the genetic diversity within a population?
a) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
b) Heterozygosity
c) Linkage disequilibrium
d) F-statistics
Answer: b) Heterozygosity

In which part of a plant cell are chloroplasts primarily found?
a) Nucleus
b) Cytoplasm
c) Cell membrane
d) Vacuole
Answer: b) Cytoplasm

Which of the following is a method used to determine the genetic relatedness between different plant varieties or species?
a) DNA sequencing
b) Electron microscopy
c) Gel electrophoresis
d) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Answer: a) DNA sequencing

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing plants from different populations or geographic regions?
a) Pure-line breeding
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Outcrossing
Answer: d) Outcrossing

Which of the following is an example of a plant breeding objective?
a) Increased yield
b) Larger flowers
c) Reducing disease susceptibility
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

Which of the following is a technique used to identify and select plants with specific traits or genes of interest?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Genetic transformation
c) Pedigree analysis
d) Embryo rescue
Answer: a) Marker-assisted selection

Which of the following is a breeding technique that involves the repeated crossing of hybrids with one of the parents?
a) Recurrent selection
b) Selfing
c) Backcrossing
d) Inbreeding
Answer: c) Backcrossing

What is the term for the process of producing offspring by combining the genetic material of two parents?
a) Fertilization
b) Pollination
c) Reproduction
d) Gametogenesis
Answer: a) Fertilization

Which of the following is a technique used to preserve the genetic diversity of plant species by storing seeds under controlled conditions?
a) Cryopreservation
b) Seed bank
c) Tissue culture
d) Clonal propagation
Answer: b) Seed bank

In which part of a flower are the male reproductive organs located?
a) Anther
b) Stigma
c) Petal
d) Sepal
Answer: a) Anther

Which of the following is a method of producing plants from a small piece of tissue or cell in a nutrient medium?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Somaclonal variation
d) Embryogenesis
Answer: b) Micropropagation

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves the selection and propagation of plants with desirable traits from a mixed population?
a) Pure-line breeding
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Inbreeding
Answer: b) Mass selection

Which of the following is a technique used to determine the order and physical distance between genes on a chromosome?
a) Genetic mapping
b) DNA fingerprinting
c) Southern blotting
d) RNA interference
Answer: a) Genetic mapping

Which of the following is a method of producing genetically identical plants from a single parent plant?
a) Sexual reproduction
b) Hybridization
c) Clonal propagation
d) Somatic hybridization
Answer: c) Clonal propagation

What is the term for the process of transferring genes from one organism to another?
a) Hybridization
b) Recombination
c) Gene transfer
d) Transcription
Answer: c) Gene transfer

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing plants within a single population or variety?
a) Outcrossing
b) Inbreeding
c) Heterosis
d) Apomixis
Answer: b) Inbreeding

Which of the following is a technique used to analyze and compare the DNA sequences of different organisms?
a) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
b) DNA sequencing
c) Gel electrophoresis
d) Cloning
Answer: b) DNA sequencing

Which of the following is a type of plant breeding that focuses on improving the nutritional content of crops?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Biofortification
c) Genetic transformation
d) Pedigree analysis
Answer: b) Biofortification

Which of the following is a technique used to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Genetic transformation
d) Somaclonal variation
Answer: c) Genetic transformation

What is the term for the hybrid offspring produced by crossing two different species of plants?
a) Clones
b) Mutants
c) Hybrids
d) Haploids
Answer: c) Hybrids

Which of the following is a method of plant breeding that involves increasing the number of chromosome sets in a plant?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Polyploidy
c) Hybridization
d) Mutation breeding
Answer: b) Polyploidy

Which of the following is a technique used to determine the genetic makeup of an individual or organism?
a) Genetic testing
b) Genetic engineering
c) Genetic mapping
d) Genetic variation
Answer: a) Genetic testing

Which of the following is a method used to assess the genetic diversity within a population based on the frequency of different alleles?
a) Genetic mapping
b) DNA sequencing
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
d) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Answer: c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Which of the following is a breeding technique that involves crossing plants with the same or similar genotype to maintain desirable traits?
a) Pure-line breeding
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Inbreeding
Answer: a) Pure-line breeding

What is the term for the process of removing undesirable or inferior plants from a breeding population?
a) Selection
b) Hybridization
c) Polyploidization
d) Recombination
Answer: a) Selection

Which of the following is a technique used to determine the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences in an organism?
a) Genetic testing
b) DNA fingerprinting
c) Gel electrophoresis
d) Cloning
Answer: b) DNA fingerprinting

Which of the following is a method of producing plants from embryos that are extracted from immature seeds?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Somaclonal variation
d) Embryogenesis
Answer: a) Somatic embryogenesis

Which of the following is a technique used to analyze the expression of genes in a plant?
a) Genetic engineering
b) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
c) Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
d) RNA interference
Answer: c) Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing two different but genetically related plant varieties?
a) Outcrossing
b) Inbreeding
c) Heterosis
d) Apomixis
Answer: c) Heterosis

Which of the following is a technique used to identify and select plants with specific traits based on their physical appearance or performance?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Genetic transformation
c) Pedigree analysis
d) Phenotypic selection
Answer: d) Phenotypic selection

In which part of a plant cell are the genetic materials located?
a) Nucleus
b) Chloroplast
c) Mitochondria
d) Vacuole
Answer: a) Nucleus

Which of the following is a technique used to analyze the presence or absence of specific proteins in a plant?
a) Genetic engineering
b) Western blotting
c) Gel electrophoresis
d) Cloning
Answer: b) Western blotting

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing two plants with different but complementary traits?
a) Outcrossing
b) Inbreeding
c) Heterosis
d) Apomixis
Answer: c) Heterosis

Which of the following is a technique used to introduce foreign DNA into plants using a soil bacterium?
a) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
b) Particle bombardment
c) Protoplast fusion
d) Self-pollination
Answer: a) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

What is the term for the process of creating multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence?
a) DNA sequencing
b) Gel electrophoresis
c) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
d) DNA fingerprinting
Answer: c) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Which of the following is a method of producing plants from somatic cells that have been fused together?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Somaclonal variation
d) Somatic hybridization
Answer: d) Somatic hybridization

Which of the following is a technique used to analyze the presence or absence of specific mRNA molecules in a plant?
a) Genetic engineering
b) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
c) Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
d) RNA interference
Answer: c) Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing plants with the same or similar genotype to increase the frequency of desirable traits?
a) Pure-line breeding
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Inbreeding
Answer: d) Inbreeding

What is the term for the process of producing offspring by combining the genetic material of two different individuals within the same species?
a) Fertilization
b) Pollination
c) Reproduction
d) Gametogenesis
Answer: a) Fertilization

Which of the following is a technique used to determine the genetic relatedness between different plant varieties or species?
a) Genetic mapping
b) DNA sequencing
c) Hybridization
d) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Answer: c) Hybridization

Which of the following is a method of producing plants from a small piece of tissue or cell in a nutrient medium?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Somaclonal variation
d) Embryogenesis
Answer: b) Micropropagation

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves the selection and propagation of plants with desirable traits from a mixed population?
a) Pure-line breeding
b) Mass selection
c) Recurrent selection
d) Inbreeding
Answer: b) Mass selection

Which of the following is a technique used to determine the order and physical distance between genes on a chromosome?
a) Genetic mapping
b) DNA fingerprinting
c) Southern blotting
d) RNA interference
Answer: a) Genetic mapping

Which of the following is a method of producing genetically identical plants from a single parent plant?
a) Sexual reproduction
b) Hybridization
c) Clonal propagation
d) Somatic hybridization
Answer: c) Clonal propagation

What is the term for the process of transferring genes from one organism to another?
a) Hybridization
b) Recombination
c) Gene transfer
d) Transcription
Answer: c) Gene transfer

Which of the following is a breeding method that involves crossing plants within a single population or variety?
a) Outcrossing
b) Inbreeding
c) Heterosis
d) Apomixis
Answer: b) Inbreeding

Which of the following is a technique used to analyze and compare the DNA sequences of different organisms?
a) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
b) DNA sequencing
c) Gel electrophoresis
d) Cloning
Answer: b) DNA sequencing

Which of the following is a type of plant breeding that focuses on improving the nutritional content of crops?
a) Marker-assisted selection
b) Biofortification
c) Genetic transformation
d) Pedigree analysis
Answer: b) Biofortification

Which of the following is a technique used to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells?
a) Somatic embryogenesis
b) Micropropagation
c) Genetic transformation
d) Somaclonal variation
Answer: c) Genetic transformation

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