Physics MCQs

# Wave Optics MCQs with Answers

Wave optics is the study of the behavior of:
a) Electromagnetic waves
b) Quantum particles
c) Geometric rays
d) Particle-wave duality

The wave nature of light is demonstrated by phenomena such as:
a) Reflection and refraction
b) Diffraction and interference
c) Dispersion and polarization
d) Scattering and absorption

The phenomenon in which light waves bend around obstacles or pass through narrow openings is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The phenomenon in which two or more light waves overlap and combine to form a new wave is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

Constructive interference occurs when two waves:
a) Reinforce each other
b) Cancel each other out
c) Reflect off a surface
d) Pass through a medium

Destructive interference occurs when two waves:
a) Reinforce each other
b) Cancel each other out
c) Reflect off a surface
d) Pass through a medium
Answer: b) Cancel each other out

The phenomenon in which light waves are separated into different colors due to their different wavelengths is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The bending of light waves as they pass from one medium to another with a different refractive index is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The angle between the incident ray and the normal to a surface is called the:
a) Angle of incidence
b) Angle of reflection
c) Angle of refraction
d) Angle of dispersion

The angle between the reflected ray and the normal to a surface is called the:
a) Angle of incidence
b) Angle of reflection
c) Angle of refraction
d) Angle of dispersion

The angle between the refracted ray and the normal to a surface is called the:
a) Angle of incidence
b) Angle of reflection
c) Angle of refraction
d) Angle of dispersion

The angle of incidence is always measured with respect to the:
a) Incident ray
b) Reflected ray
c) Normal to the surface
d) Refracted ray
Answer: c) Normal to the surface

The angle of reflection is always measured with respect to the:
a) Incident ray
b) Reflected ray
c) Normal to the surface
d) Refracted ray
Answer: c) Normal to the surface

The angle of refraction is always measured with respect to the:
a) Incident ray
b) Reflected ray
c) Normal to the surface
d) Refracted ray
Answer: c) Normal to the surface

The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the:
a) Angle of reflection
b) Angle of refraction
c) Angle of dispersion
d) Angle of diffraction

The law of refraction, or Snell’s law, relates the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction to the:
a) Speed of light in the medium
b) Wavelength of light
c) Frequency of light
d) Amplitude of light
Answer: a) Speed of light in the medium

The refractive index of a medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. It is denoted by the symbol:
a) c
b) v
c) n
d) λ

The refractive index of a medium is always:
a) Less than 1
b) Equal to 1
c) Greater than 1
d) Negative

When light waves pass from a rarer medium to a denser medium, they:
a) Speed up
b) Slow down
c) Reflect
d) Scatter

When light waves pass from a denser medium to a rarer medium, they:
a) Speed up
b) Slow down
c) Reflect
d) Scatter

Total internal reflection occurs when light waves:
a) Pass through a transparent medium
b) Bend upon entering a denser medium
c) Reflect off a surface at a certain angle
d) Are absorbed by a medium
Answer: c) Reflect off a surface at a certain angle

The critical angle is the angle of incidence at which:
a) Total internal reflection occurs
b) Refraction is maximum
c) Reflection is maximum
d) Diffraction of light occurs
Answer: a) Total internal reflection occurs

The phenomenon in which light waves are polarized is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Polarization

Polarization of light refers to the:
a) Bending of light waves
b) Reflection of light waves
c) Dispersion of light waves
d) Alignment of light waves
Answer: d) Alignment of light waves

Polarized light waves vibrate in:
a) Multiple planes
b) One plane
c) All directions
d) Circular patterns

The process of producing polarized light by selectively absorbing or reflecting light waves that vibrate in certain directions is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Polarization

The polarization of light can be achieved by using:
a) Polarizing filters
b) Reflecting surfaces
c) Refracting surfaces
d) Diffraction gratings

The colors seen in a thin film interference pattern are a result of:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

In a double-slit interference pattern, the bright fringes occur when the path difference between the two slits is:
a) Zero
b) Half-wavelength
c) One wavelength
d) Multiple wavelengths

In a double-slit interference pattern, the dark fringes occur when the path difference between the two slits is:
a) Zero
b) Half-wavelength
c) One wavelength
d) Multiple wavelengths

Young’s double-slit experiment demonstrates the:
a) Reflection of light
b) Refraction of light
c) Diffraction of light
d) Interference of light

The phenomenon in which a diffraction grating produces a pattern of bright and dark fringes is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

The interference pattern produced by a diffraction grating has:
a) Fewer fringes than a double-slit pattern
b) More fringes than a double-slit pattern
c) Wider fringes than a double-slit pattern
d) Narrower fringes than a double-slit pattern
Answer: b) More fringes than a double-slit pattern

The colors seen in a soap bubble or an oil slick are a result of:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

The phenomenon in which light waves are scattered by small particles or irregularities in a medium is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Scattering

Rayleigh scattering is the scattering of light by:
a) Small particles smaller than the wavelength of light
b) Large particles larger than the wavelength of light
c) Spherical particles
d) Irregularities in a medium
Answer: a) Small particles smaller than the wavelength of light

The color of the sky appears blue during the day due to:
a) Reflection of light by the atmosphere
b) Refraction of light by the atmosphere
c) Diffraction of light by the atmosphere
d) Scattering of light by the atmosphere
Answer: d) Scattering of light by the atmosphere

The color of the sky appears red during sunrise and sunset due to:
a) Reflection of light by the atmosphere
b) Refraction of light by the atmosphere
c) Diffraction of light by the atmosphere
d) Scattering of light by the atmosphere
Answer: d) Scattering of light by the atmosphere

The color of an opaque object is the color of light that is:
a) Absorbed by the object
b) Transmitted through the object
c) Reflected by the object
d) Scattered by the object
Answer: c) Reflected by the object

The primary colors of light are:
a) Red, green, and blue
b) Cyan, magenta, and yellow
c) Red, blue, and yellow
d) Cyan, yellow, and black
Answer: a) Red, green, and blue

The primary colors of pigments are:
a) Red, green, and blue
b) Cyan, magenta, and yellow
c) Red, blue, and yellow
d) Cyan, yellow, and black
Answer: b) Cyan, magenta, and yellow

The phenomenon in which light waves are separated into their component colors due to their different wavelengths is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The dispersion of white light by a prism produces a spectrum of colors known as the:
a) Rainbow
b) Diffraction pattern
c) Interference pattern
d) Polarization pattern

The spreading out of a light wave as it passes through a narrow opening or around an obstacle is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The phenomenon in which light waves are focused or defocused by a lens or a mirror is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Focusing

The focusing power of a lens or a mirror is determined by its:
a) Focal length
b) Curvature
c) Index of refraction
d) Surface area

The focal length of a lens is the distance between the lens and the:
a) Object
b) Image
c) Source of light
d) Center of curvature

A converging lens is also known as a:
a) Concave lens
b) Convex lens
c) Diverging lens
d) Plano-convex lens

A diverging lens is also known as a:
a) Concave lens
b) Convex lens
c) Converging lens
d) Plano-concave lens

The lens formula relates the object distance (u), image distance (v), and focal length (f) of a lens. It is given by:
a) 1/f = 1/u + 1/v
b) f = u + v
c) f = u/v
d) f = v/u
Answer: a) 1/f = 1/u + 1/v

The lens equation gives the relationship between the object distance (u), image distance (v), and the:
b) Focal length
c) Diameter of the lens
d) Index of refraction

The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its:
a) Focal length
b) Object distance
c) Image distance
d) Magnification

A converging lens has a positive power, while a diverging lens has a:
a) Positive power
b) Negative power
c) Zero power
d) Infinite power

The ability of a lens or a mirror to focus parallel rays of light to a single point is called:
a) Diffraction
b) Dispersion
c) Focusing power
d) Aberration

Chromatic aberration in lenses is caused by:
a) Different colors of light having different speeds in the lens material
b) Imperfections in the lens surface
c) Incorrect curvature of the lens
d) Poor alignment of lens elements
Answer: a) Different colors of light having different speeds in the lens material

Spherical aberration in lenses is caused by:
a) Different colors of light having different speeds in the lens material
b) Imperfections in the lens surface
c) Incorrect curvature of the lens
d) Poor alignment of lens elements
Answer: c) Incorrect curvature of the lens

The principle of superposition states that when two or more waves overlap, the resulting disturbance is the:
a) Sum of the individual disturbances
b) Difference of the individual disturbances
c) Product of the individual disturbances
d) Division of the individual disturbances
Answer: a) Sum of the individual disturbances

The interference pattern observed when two coherent light waves overlap is characterized by:
a) Bright and dark fringes
b) Colorful patterns
c) Diffuse scattering
d) Polarized light
Answer: a) Bright and dark fringes

Coherence refers to the property of light waves having:
a) The same amplitude
b) The same frequency
c) The same wavelength
d) A constant phase relationship
Answer: d) A constant phase relationship

The phenomenon of interference is a result of the:
a) Wave-particle duality of light
b) Wave nature of light
c) Particle nature of light
d) Doppler effect
Answer: b) Wave nature of light

The phenomenon of diffraction is a result of the:
a) Wave-particle duality of light
b) Wave nature of light
c) Particle nature of light
d) Doppler effect
Answer: b) Wave nature of light

Huygens’ principle states that every point on a wavefront can be considered as a source of:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

The phenomenon in which waves spread out as they pass through an opening or around an obstacle is called:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Dispersion

The width of a single-slit diffraction pattern is determined by the:
a) Wavelength of light and the size of the slit
b) Intensity of light and the size of the slit
c) Distance between the source and the slit
d) Angle of incidence
Answer: a) Wavelength of light and the size of the slit

The intensity of a single-slit diffraction pattern is greatest at the:
a) Central maximum
b) First minimum
c) Second minimum
d) Last maximum

The diffraction grating consists of a large number of closely spaced:
a) Slits
b) Lenses
c) Mirrors
d) Prisms

The diffraction grating produces a pattern of bright and dark fringes due to:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference

The spacing between the fringes in a diffraction grating pattern is determined by the:
a) Wavelength of light and the number of slits
b) Intensity of light and the number of slits
c) Distance between the source and the grating
d) Angle of incidence
Answer: a) Wavelength of light and the number of slits

The colors seen in a diffraction grating pattern are a result of:
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction
d) Interference