Neurophysiology MCQs with Answers

Which of the following is responsible for transmitting signals between neurons?
a) Neurotransmitters
b) Hormones
c) Enzymes
d) Proteins
Answer: a

The central nervous system consists of:
a) Brain and spinal cord
b) Nerves and ganglia
c) Peripheral nerves
d) Sense organs
Answer: a

The basic functional unit of the nervous system is:
a) Neuron
b) Glial cell
c) Axon
d) Dendrite
Answer: a

The process by which nerve impulses are conducted along an axon is called:
a) Action potential
b) Synaptic transmission
c) Depolarization
d) Repolarization
Answer: a

Which part of the neuron receives signals from other neurons?
a) Dendrites
b) Axon
c) Soma
d) Terminal branches
Answer: a

The myelin sheath is formed by:
a) Glial cells
b) Neurons
c) Neurotransmitters
d) Synaptic vesicles
Answer: a

The synapse is:
a) A gap between two neurons
b) A part of the neuron that receives signals
c) The site where neurotransmitters are released
d) The junction between the axon and the dendrite
Answer: a

Which of the following is responsible for the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft?
a) Presynaptic neuron
b) Postsynaptic neuron
c) Astrocyte
d) Microglial cell
Answer: a

The resting membrane potential of a neuron is approximately:
a) -70 mV
b) 0 mV
c) +30 mV
d) -30 mV
Answer: a

Which of the following ions plays a key role in the generation of action potentials?
a) Sodium (Na+)
b) Potassium (K+)
c) Calcium (Ca2+)
d) Chloride (Cl-)
Answer: a

The process by which the membrane potential becomes more negative is called:
a) Depolarization
b) Repolarization
c) Hyperpolarization
d) Action potential
Answer: c

The gap between adjacent Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system is called:
a) Synapse
b) Node of Ranvier
c) Axon hillock
d) Terminal button
Answer: b

The speed of conduction of nerve impulses along an axon can be increased by:
a) Larger diameter of the axon
b) Myelination of the axon
c) Presence of Schwann cells
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The process by which the membrane potential becomes more positive is called:
a) Depolarization
b) Repolarization
c) Hyperpolarization
d) Action potential
Answer: a

Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system?
a) Glutamate
b) GABA
c) Dopamine
d) Serotonin
Answer: a

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movements is called the:
a) Somatic nervous system
b) Autonomic nervous system
c) Sympathetic nervous system
d) Parasympathetic nervous system
Answer: a

Which of the following is responsible for the production of cerebrospinal fluid?
a) Choroid plexus
b) Medulla oblongata
c) Pineal gland
d) Hypothalamus
Answer: a

The part of the brain that controls vital functions such as breathing and heart rate is the:
a) Medulla oblongata
b) Cerebellum
c) Hypothalamus
d) Cerebrum
Answer: a

Which part of the brain is responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance?
a) Cerebellum
b) Thalamus
c) Amygdala
d) Hippocampus
Answer: a

The division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the “fight or flight” response is the:
a) Sympathetic nervous system
b) Parasympathetic nervous system
c) Somatic nervous system
d) Enteric nervous system
Answer: a

Which of the following is a function of the parasympathetic nervous system?
a) Rest and digest
b) Increase heart rate
c) Dilate blood vessels
d) Activate the stress response
Answer: a

The part of the brain that is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking and decision-making is the:
a) Cerebrum
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Pons
Answer: a

Which of the following is NOT a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
a) Frontal lobe
b) Parietal lobe
c) Temporal lobe
d) Vertebral lobe
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in emotions and the formation of long-term memories is the:
a) Amygdala
b) Hippocampus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Thalamus
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in:
a) Reward and motivation
b) Movement control
c) Mood regulation
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Which of the following is responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain?
a) Optic nerve
b) Olfactory nerve
c) Vestibulocochlear nerve
d) Trigeminal nerve
Answer: a

The part of the brainstem that regulates sleep and arousal is the:
a) Reticular formation
b) Medulla oblongata
c) Pons
d) Midbrain
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in:
a) Mood regulation
b) Sleep and wakefulness
c) Appetite and digestion
d) All of the above
Answer: d

Which of the following is responsible for the sense of smell?
a) Olfactory nerve
b) Optic nerve
c) Auditory nerve
d) Facial nerve
Answer: a

The division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for rest and digestion is the:
a) Parasympathetic nervous system
b) Sympathetic nervous system
c) Somatic nervous system
d) Enteric nervous system
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter GABA is involved in:
a) Inhibiting neural activity
b) Enhancing neural activity
c) Modulating pain perception
d) All of the above
Answer: a

The part of the brain that plays a key role in regulating body temperature and maintaining homeostasis is the:
a) Hypothalamus
b) Thalamus
c) Amygdala
d) Hippocampus
Answer: a

The somatosensory cortex is responsible for processing:
a) Touch and pressure sensations
b) Visual information
c) Auditory information
d) Olfactory information
Answer: a

Which part of the brain is responsible for processing auditory information?
a) Temporal lobe
b) Frontal lobe
c) Parietal lobe
d) Occipital lobe
Answer: a

The process by which the brain adapts and changes in response to experience is called:
a) Neuroplasticity
b) Synaptic transmission
c) Myelination
d) Depolarization
Answer: a

The part of the brain that plays a role in coordinating voluntary movements and motor learning is the:
a) Cerebellum
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Pons
Answer: a

The process by which nerve impulses are transmitted between neurons is called:
a) Synaptic transmission
b) Axon propagation
c) Neuronal firing
d) Ion exchange
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is involved in:
a) Muscle movement
b) Memory and learning
c) Regulation of attention
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that is responsible for processing visual information is the:
a) Occipital lobe
b) Frontal lobe
c) Parietal lobe
d) Temporal lobe
Answer: a

Which part of the brain is responsible for processing and integrating sensory information?
a) Thalamus
b) Hypothalamus
c) Cerebellum
d) Amygdala
Answer: a

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and digestion is the:
a) Autonomic nervous system
b) Somatic nervous system
c) Sympathetic nervous system
d) Parasympathetic nervous system
Answer: a

The process by which a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another is called:
a) Synaptic transmission
b) Action potential
c) Neurotransmitter release
d) Ion channel opening
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is involved in:
a) Arousal and alertness
b) Mood regulation
c) Stress response
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating sleep and wakefulness is the:
a) Hypothalamus
b) Reticular formation
c) Medulla oblongata
d) Cerebellum
Answer: b

The process by which a neuron receives signals from other neurons is called:
a) Synaptic transmission
b) Neurotransmitter release
c) Dendritic integration
d) Action potential
Answer: c

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating emotions, motivation, and pleasure is the:
a) Limbic system
b) Basal ganglia
c) Cerebellum
d) Cerebrum
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter glutamate is involved in:
a) Excitatory synaptic transmission
b) Inhibitory synaptic transmission
c) Pain perception
d) All of the above
Answer: a

The part of the brain that controls voluntary movements and higher cognitive functions is the:
a) Cerebrum
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Brainstem
Answer: a

Which of the following is responsible for coordinating the body’s response to stress?
a) Hypothalamus
b) Pituitary gland
c) Adrenal gland
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in memory formation and spatial navigation is the:
a) Hippocampus
b) Amygdala
c) Thalamus
d) Cerebellum
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter GABA is involved in:
a) Inhibiting neural activity
b) Enhancing neural activity
c) Modulating pain perception
d) All of the above
Answer: a

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating body temperature and coordinating movement is the:
a) Basal ganglia
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Cerebrum
Answer: c

The part of the brain that plays a role in processing and integrating sensory information is the:
a) Thalamus
b) Hypothalamus
c) Cerebellum
d) Amygdala
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in:
a) Mood regulation
b) Sleep and wakefulness
c) Appetite and digestion
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in coordinating complex motor movements is the:
a) Basal ganglia
b) Reticular formation
c) Medulla oblongata
d) Thalamus
Answer: a

The process by which nerve impulses are transmitted along an axon is called:
a) Action potential
b) Synaptic transmission
c) Depolarization
d) Repolarization
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is involved in:
a) Muscle movement
b) Memory and learning
c) Regulation of attention
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating sleep and wakefulness is the:
a) Hypothalamus
b) Reticular formation
c) Medulla oblongata
d) Cerebellum
Answer: b

The process by which a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another is called:
a) Synaptic transmission
b) Action potential
c) Neurotransmitter release
d) Ion channel opening
Answer: a

The part of the brain that plays a role in processing visual information is the:
a) Occipital lobe
b) Frontal lobe
c) Parietal lobe
d) Temporal lobe
Answer: a

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and digestion is the:
a) Autonomic nervous system
b) Somatic nervous system
c) Sympathetic nervous system
d) Parasympathetic nervous system
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is involved in:
a) Arousal and alertness
b) Mood regulation
c) Stress response
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating emotions, motivation, and pleasure is the:
a) Limbic system
b) Basal ganglia
c) Cerebellum
d) Cerebrum
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter glutamate is involved in:
a) Excitatory synaptic transmission
b) Inhibitory synaptic transmission
c) Pain perception
d) All of the above
Answer: a

The part of the brain that controls voluntary movements and higher cognitive functions is the:
a) Cerebrum
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Brainstem
Answer: a

Which of the following is responsible for coordinating the body’s response to stress?
a) Hypothalamus
b) Pituitary gland
c) Adrenal gland
d) All of the above
Answer: d

The part of the brain that plays a role in memory formation and spatial navigation is the:
a) Hippocampus
b) Amygdala
c) Thalamus
d) Cerebellum
Answer: a

The neurotransmitter GABA is involved in:
a) Inhibiting neural activity
b) Enhancing neural activity
c) Modulating pain perception
d) All of the above
Answer: a

The part of the brain that plays a role in regulating body temperature and coordinating movement is the:
a) Basal ganglia
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Cerebrum
Answer: c

The part of the brain that plays a role in processing and integrating sensory information is the:
a) Thalamus
b) Hypothalamus
c) Cerebellum
d) Amygdala
Answer: a

 

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