Genetics and Heredity MCQs with Answers

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Genetics and Heredity Online MCQs with Answers

What is the branch of biology that deals with the study of genes and heredity?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Botany
d) Zoology

Answer
a) Genetics

What is the basic unit of heredity called?
a) Protein
b) Chromosome
c) Gene
d) Nucleotide

Answer
c) Gene

Which of the following is responsible for the transmission of genetic information from parents to offspring?
a) DNA
b) RNA
c) Protein
d) Enzyme

Answer
a) DNA

How many chromosomes are present in a human somatic cell?
a) 23
b) 46
c) 64
d) 92

Answer
b) 46

What is the process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA?
a) Transcription
b) Translation
c) Replication
d) Recombination

Answer
a) Transcription

Which of the following is responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell?
a) DNA
b) RNA
c) Lipids
d) Carbohydrates

Answer
b) RNA

How many nucleotides are present in a DNA molecule?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 8

Answer
b) 4

Which of the following represents the complementary base pairing in DNA?
a) Adenine-Thymine, Guanine-Cytosine
b) Adenine-Guanine, Thymine-Cytosine
c) Adenine-Cytosine, Guanine-Thymine
d) Adenine-Uracil, Guanine-Cytosine

Answer
a) Adenine-Thymine, Guanine-Cytosine

What is the term used to describe an alternative form of a gene?
a) Locus
b) Allele
c) Chromosome
d) Genotype

Answer
b) Allele

Which of the following genetic disorders is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21?
a) Down syndrome
b) Hemophilia
c) Turner syndrome
d) Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Answer
a) Down syndrome

What is the probability of having a male child in humans?
a) 25%
b) 50%
c) 75%
d) 100%

Answer
b) 50%

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the blending of traits in offspring?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
d) Incomplete dominance

What is the term used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism?
a) Phenotype
b) Genotype
c) Allele
d) Homozygous

Answer
b) Genotype

Which of the following is a sex-linked genetic disorder?
a) Huntington’s disease
b) Cystic fibrosis
c) Sickle cell anemia
d) Hemophilia

Answer
d) Hemophilia

What is the probability of two carrier parents having an affected child with an autosomal recessive disorder?
a) 0%
b) 25%
c) 50%
d) 100%

Answer
b) 25%

What is the term used to describe the observable characteristics of an organism?
a) Phenotype
b) Genotype
c) Allele
d) Heterozygous

Answer
a) Phenotype

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
a) Albinism

What is the term used to describe the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
a) Dominant

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of both alleles in a heterozygous individual?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
c) Codominant

What is the term used to describe the study of the distribution and inheritance of traits in populations?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Heredity
d) Population genetics

Answer
d) Population genetics

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the inability to break down phenylalanine?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where a single gene has multiple effects on an organism?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
a) Pleiotropy

Which of the following is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome in males?
a) Down syndrome
b) Hemophilia
c) Turner syndrome
d) Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Answer
c) Turner syndrome

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals with different genotypes for a particular trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
b) Heterozygous

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
c) Tay-Sachs disease

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where the expression of one gene is influenced by the presence of another gene?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
c) Epistasis

Which of the following is a genetic disorder characterized by the production of abnormal hemoglobin?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
d) Sickle cell anemia

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals with the same genotype for a particular trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
a) Homozygous

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the masking of the expression of a recessive allele by a dominant allele?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
a) Dominant

What is the term used to describe the occurrence of three or more alleles for a particular gene in a population?
a) Multiple alleles
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Codominance
d) Epistasis

Answer
a) Multiple alleles

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down lipids in the brain?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
c) Tay-Sachs disease

What is the term used to describe the likelihood of a particular genotype or phenotype occurring in a population?
a) Gene flow
b) Genetic drift
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
d) Gene frequency

Answer
d) Gene frequency

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait only when two copies of the recessive allele are present?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
b) Recessive

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals that are heterozygous for two different traits?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
d) Dihybrid cross

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Sickle cell anemia

Answer
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where multiple genes contribute to the expression of a single trait?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
b) Polygenic inheritance

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of both alleles in a heterozygous individual?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
c) Codominant

What is the term used to describe the study of the patterns and effects of genetic variation within populations?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Heredity
d) Population genetics

Answer
d) Population genetics

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down galactose?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Galactosemia

Answer
d) Galactosemia

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals that are heterozygous for one trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
c) Monohybrid cross

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual that is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
d) Incomplete dominance

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where one gene masks or modifies the effect of another gene?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
c) Epistasis

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific amino acid?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Cystic fibrosis

Answer
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals with the same genotype for two different traits?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
a) Homozygous

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait only when the dominant allele is homozygous?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
b) Recessive

What is the term used to describe the occurrence of two different alleles for a particular gene in a population?
a) Multiple alleles
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Codominance
d) Epistasis

Answer
a) Multiple alleles

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down mucus in the lungs and digestive system?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Cystic fibrosis

Answer
d) Cystic fibrosis

What is the term used to describe the probability of two independent events occurring together?
a) Gene flow
b) Genetic drift
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
d) Product rule

Answer
d) Product rule

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual that is indistinguishable from the expression in a homozygous dominant individual?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
c) Codominant

What is the term used to describe the study of the inheritance of traits in successive generations of related individuals?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Heredity
d) Pedigree analysis

Answer
d) Pedigree analysis

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific lipid?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Gaucher disease

Answer
d) Gaucher disease

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals that are homozygous for one trait and heterozygous for another trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
d) Dihybrid cross

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual that is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
d) Incomplete dominance

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where one gene has multiple effects on different traits?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
a) Pleiotropy

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific sugar?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Galactosemia

Answer
d) Galactosemia

What is the term used to describe the probability of two independent events occurring either together or separately?
a) Gene flow
b) Genetic drift
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
d) Sum rule

Answer
d) Sum rule

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait only when the dominant allele is homozygous?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
b) Recessive

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals that are heterozygous for the same trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
b) Heterozygous

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific protein in the brain?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Huntington’s disease

Answer
d) Huntington’s disease

What is the term used to describe the study of the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population over time?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Heredity
d) Population genetics

Answer
d) Population genetics

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual that is indistinguishable from the expression in a homozygous dominant individual?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
c) Codominant

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where multiple genes contribute to the expression of a single trait?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
b) Polygenic inheritance

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific amino acid?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Cystic fibrosis

Answer
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)

What is the term used to describe the mating between two individuals that are heterozygous for one trait?
a) Homozygous
b) Heterozygous
c) Monohybrid cross
d) Dihybrid cross

Answer
c) Monohybrid cross

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait in a heterozygous individual that is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
d) Incomplete dominance

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where one gene masks or modifies the effect of another gene?
a) Pleiotropy
b) Polygenic inheritance
c) Epistasis
d) Codominance

Answer
c) Epistasis

Which of the following genetic disorders is characterized by the absence of an enzyme needed to break down a specific lipid?
a) Albinism
b) Phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) Tay-Sachs disease
d) Gaucher disease

Answer
d) Gaucher disease

What is the term used to describe the probability of two independent events occurring either together or separately?
a) Gene flow
b) Genetic drift
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
d) Sum rule

Answer
d) Sum rule

Which of the following inheritance patterns is characterized by the expression of a trait only when the dominant allele is homozygous?
a) Dominant
b) Recessive
c) Codominant
d) Incomplete dominance

Answer
b) Recessive

What is the term used to describe the study of the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population over time?
a) Genetics
b) Ecology
c) Heredity
d) Population genetics

Answer
d) Population genetics

 

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