What is the first step of the scientific method?

a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Theory

d) Conclusion

a) Scientific method

b) Observation

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

a) Experimentation

b) Observation

c) Hypothesis

d) Conclusion

a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

a) Dependent variables

b) Independent variables

c) Controlled variables

d) Confounding variables

a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

a) The temperature is 25°C.

b) The weight is 50 grams.

c) The solution is blue in color.

d) The time is 10 seconds.

a) The temperature is 25°C.

b) The weight is 50 grams.

c) The solution is blue in color.

d) The time is 10 seconds.

a) Precision error

b) Random error

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

a) Precision error

b) Random error

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

a) Precision

b) Accuracy

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

a) Precision

b) Accuracy

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

a) Histogram

b) Scatter plot

c) Line graph

d) Bar graph

a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

a) Peer review

b) Literature review

c) Experimental design

d) Data analysis

a) Sample size

b) Randomization

c) Control group

d) All of the above

a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Dissemination

b) Publication

c) Communication

d) Presentation

a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

a) Meta-analysis

b) Correlation analysis

c) Factor analysis

d) Regression analysis

a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

a) Correlation coefficient

b) Standard deviation

c) Mean difference

d) Confidence interval

a) As one variable increases, the other variable increases.

b) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

c) There is no relationship between the two variables.

d) The relationship between the two variables is random.

a) As one variable increases, the other variable increases.

b) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

c) There is no relationship between the two variables.

d) The relationship between the two variables is random.

a) Strong positive correlation

b) Strong negative correlation

c) No correlation

d) Perfect correlation

a) Strong positive correlation

b) Strong negative correlation

c) No correlation

d) Perfect correlation

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) Paired t-test

a) Chi-square test

b) ANOVA

c) Regression analysis

d) t-test

a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) t-test

a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

a) Systematic review

b) Meta-analysis

c) Qualitative analysis

d) Factor analysis

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**a) ObservationWhich of the following is a testable explanation for a scientific phenomenon?a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Theory

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**b) HypothesisWhat is the systematic approach used in science to gain knowledge about the natural world?a) Scientific method

b) Observation

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**a) Scientific methodWhich step of the scientific method involves formulating a prediction based on the hypothesis?a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**b) HypothesisWhat is the process of gathering data through controlled experiments or observations?a) Experimentation

b) Observation

c) Hypothesis

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**a) ExperimentationWhich step of the scientific method involves analyzing and interpreting the data?a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**c) ExperimentationWhat is the final step of the scientific method that involves summarizing the results and drawing a supported conclusion?a) Observation

b) Hypothesis

c) Experimentation

d) Conclusion

**Answer:**d) ConclusionWhat is a variable that is deliberately changed or manipulated in an experiment?a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

**Answer:**b) Independent variableWhat is a variable that is observed or measured in response to changes in the independent variable?a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

**Answer:**a) Dependent variableWhat are the variables that are kept constant or unchanged in an experiment?a) Dependent variables

b) Independent variables

c) Controlled variables

d) Confounding variables

**Answer:**c) Controlled variablesWhat is a variable that unintentionally influences the outcome of an experiment?a) Dependent variable

b) Independent variable

c) Controlled variable

d) Confounding variable

**Answer:**d) Confounding variableWhich of the following is an example of a qualitative observation?a) The temperature is 25°C.

b) The weight is 50 grams.

c) The solution is blue in color.

d) The time is 10 seconds.

**Answer:**c) The solution is blue in color.Which of the following is an example of a quantitative observation?a) The temperature is 25°C.

b) The weight is 50 grams.

c) The solution is blue in color.

d) The time is 10 seconds.

**Answer:**b) The weight is 50 grams.What is a systematic error that occurs consistently and affects the accuracy of measurements?a) Precision error

b) Random error

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**c) BiasWhat is a random error that occurs unpredictably and affects the precision of measurements?a) Precision error

b) Random error

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**b) Random errorWhat is a measure of how close a set of measurements are to each other?a) Precision

b) Accuracy

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**a) PrecisionWhat is a measure of how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value?a) Precision

b) Accuracy

c) Bias

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**b) AccuracyWhat is a graphical representation of data points used to determine patterns or relationships?a) Histogram

b) Scatter plot

c) Line graph

d) Bar graph

**Answer:**b) Scatter plotWhat is a statistical measure of the spread or variability of a set of data?a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**d) Standard deviationWhat is a measure of central tendency calculated by summing the values and dividing by the number of data points?a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**b) MeanWhat is a measure of central tendency that represents the middle value of a set of data when arranged in ascending or descending order?a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**c) MedianWhat is a measure of the spread of values in a set of data calculated by subtracting the smallest value from the largest value?a) Range

b) Mean

c) Median

d) Standard deviation

**Answer:**a) RangeWhat is the principle that scientific investigations should be based on observable and measurable evidence?a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

**Answer:**d) EmpiricismWhat is the process of repeating an experiment or study to determine if the same results are obtained?a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

**Answer:**a) ReproducibilityWhat is the principle that scientific investigations should be free from personal bias or prejudice?a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

**Answer:**b) ObjectivityWhat is the principle that scientific investigations should yield consistent and dependable results?a) Reproducibility

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Empiricism

**Answer:**c) ReliabilityWhich of the following is an example of a primary source in scientific research?a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

**Answer:**a) Research article published in a scientific journalWhich of the following is an example of a secondary source in scientific research?a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

**Answer:**b) Textbook discussing previous research studiesWhich of the following is an example of a review article in scientific research?a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

**Answer:**c) Review article summarizing multiple research studiesWhich of the following is an example of a popular science article?a) Research article published in a scientific journal

b) Textbook discussing previous research studies

c) Review article summarizing multiple research studies

d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveries

**Answer:**d) Newspaper article reporting scientific discoveriesWhat is the process by which scientific research is evaluated by experts in the field prior to publication?a) Peer review

b) Literature review

c) Experimental design

d) Data analysis

**Answer:**a) Peer reviewWhich of the following is a characteristic of a well-designed scientific experiment?a) Sample size

b) Randomization

c) Control group

d) All of the above

**Answer:**d) All of the aboveWhat is a measure of the likelihood that the results of an experiment occurred by chance?a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

**Answer:**b) P-valueWhat is a range of values within which the true value is likely to fall with a certain level of confidence?a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

**Answer:**a) Confidence intervalWhat is a measure of the magnitude or strength of a relationship or difference observed in a study?a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

**Answer:**c) Effect sizeWhat is a statistical calculation used to determine the sample size needed to detect an effect with a desired level of power?a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

**Answer:**d) Power analysisWhat is a measure of the amount of evidence required to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis?a) Confidence interval

b) P-value

c) Effect size

d) Power analysis

**Answer:**b) P-valueWhat is a factor that can affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variables?a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

**Answer:**b) Confounding variableWhat is a variable that is introduced intentionally in an experiment to manipulate the independent variable?a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

**Answer:**c) Control variableWhat is a variable that may influence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables but is not the primary focus of the study?a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

**Answer:**a) Extraneous variableWhat is a variable that explains or mediates the relationship between the independent and dependent variables?a) Extraneous variable

b) Confounding variable

c) Control variable

d) Mediating variable

**Answer:**d) Mediating variableWhat is a research design that involves studying a group of individuals over an extended period of time?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**b) Longitudinal studyWhat is a research design that involves collecting data from a group of individuals at a single point in time?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**a) Cross-sectional studyWhat is a research design that involves randomly assigning participants to different groups and manipulating the independent variable?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**c) Experimental studyWhat is a research design that involves comparing individuals with a particular condition or characteristic to individuals without that condition or characteristic?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**d) Case-control studyWhat is the process of presenting research findings at conferences or in scientific journals?a) Dissemination

b) Publication

c) Communication

d) Presentation

**Answer:**a) DisseminationWhat is the ethical principle that research participants should be fully informed about the nature and purpose of the study?a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

**Answer:**a) Informed consentWhat is the ethical principle that researchers should protect the privacy and confidentiality of research participants?a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

**Answer:**b) ConfidentialityWhat is the ethical principle that researchers should maximize the potential benefits of the research while minimizing any potential harms?a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

**Answer:**c) BeneficenceWhat is the ethical principle that researchers should distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly among participants?a) Informed consent

b) Confidentiality

c) Beneficence

d) Justice

**Answer:**d) JusticeWhat is a statistical method used to combine the results of multiple studies on the same topic?a) Meta-analysis

b) Correlation analysis

c) Factor analysis

d) Regression analysis

**Answer:**a) Meta-analysisWhat is a research design that involves observing and recording behaviors or phenomena in their natural setting?a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

**Answer:**b) Observational studyWhat is a research design that examines the relationship between two variables without manipulating them?a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

**Answer:**c) Correlational studyWhat is a research design that lacks random assignment to different groups but still examines cause-and-effect relationships?a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

**Answer:**d) Quasi-experimental studyWhat is a research design that involves manipulating the independent variable and observing its effects on the dependent variable?a) Experimental study

b) Observational study

c) Correlational study

d) Quasi-experimental study

**Answer:**a) Experimental studyWhat is a technique used to reduce bias in research studies by randomly assigning participants to different groups?a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

**Answer:**a) RandomizationWhat is a technique used to reduce bias in research studies by keeping participants unaware of their assigned group or condition?a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

**Answer:**b) BlindingWhat is a technique used to reduce bias in research studies by systematically varying the order of conditions or treatments?a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

**Answer:**c) CounterbalancingWhat is a technique used to reduce bias in research studies by using a control group that receives a placebo instead of the active treatment?a) Randomization

b) Blinding

c) Counterbalancing

d) Placebo control

**Answer:**d) Placebo controlWhat is a research design that involves comparing the same group of participants at multiple points in time?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**b) Longitudinal studyWhat is a research design that involves collecting data from different groups of participants with varying characteristics?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**a) Cross-sectional studyWhat is a research design that involves manipulating the independent variable and randomly assigning participants to different groups?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**c) Experimental studyWhat is a research design that involves comparing individuals with a particular condition or characteristic to individuals without that condition or characteristic?a) Cross-sectional study

b) Longitudinal study

c) Experimental study

d) Case-control study

**Answer:**d) Case-control studyWhat is a measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables?a) Correlation coefficient

b) Standard deviation

c) Mean difference

d) Confidence interval

**Answer:**a) Correlation coefficientWhat is a positive correlation between two variables?a) As one variable increases, the other variable increases.

b) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

c) There is no relationship between the two variables.

d) The relationship between the two variables is random.

**Answer:**a) As one variable increases, the other variable increases.What is a negative correlation between two variables?a) As one variable increases, the other variable increases.

b) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

c) There is no relationship between the two variables.

d) The relationship between the two variables is random.

**Answer:**b) As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.What is a correlation coefficient of 0 indicating?a) Strong positive correlation

b) Strong negative correlation

c) No correlation

d) Perfect correlation

**Answer:**c) No correlationWhat is a correlation coefficient of +1 or -1 indicating?a) Strong positive correlation

b) Strong negative correlation

c) No correlation

d) Perfect correlation

**Answer:**d) Perfect correlationWhat is a statistical method used to determine the relationship between two or more variables, taking into account other influencing factors?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

**Answer:**a) Regression analysisWhat is a statistical method used to determine if there are significant differences between the means of two or more groups?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

**Answer:**c) Analysis of varianceWhat is a statistical test used to compare the means of two independent groups?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

**Answer:**d) T-testWhat is a statistical method used to identify underlying factors or dimensions in a set of observed variables?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) T-test

**Answer:**b) Factor analysisWhat is a statistical method used to compare the means of two dependent groups?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) Paired t-test

**Answer:**d) Paired t-testWhat is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two categorical variables?a) Chi-square test

b) ANOVA

c) Regression analysis

d) t-test

**Answer:**a) Chi-square testWhat is a statistical method used to determine the relationship between two variables while controlling for the effects of other variables?a) Regression analysis

b) Factor analysis

c) Analysis of variance

d) t-test

**Answer:**a) Regression analysisWhat is a statistical test used to determine if the means of two independent groups are significantly different in non-parametric data?a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

**Answer:**a) Mann-Whitney U testWhat is a statistical test used to determine if the means of two or more independent groups are significantly different in non-parametric data?a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

**Answer:**b) Kruskal-Wallis testWhat is a statistical test used to determine if the means of two dependent groups are significantly different in non-parametric data?a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

**Answer:**c) Wilcoxon signed-rank testWhat is a statistical test used to determine if the means of three or more dependent groups are significantly different in non-parametric data?a) Mann-Whitney U test

b) Kruskal-Wallis test

c) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

d) Friedman test

**Answer:**d) Friedman testWhat is a statistical method used to analyze data from multiple studies to identify consistent patterns or trends?a) Systematic review

b) Meta-analysis

c) Qualitative analysis

d) Factor analysis

**Answer:**b) Meta-analysis