Biology MCQs

Genetics MCQs with Answers

The branch of biology that studies heredity and variation is called:
a) Ecology
b) Genetics
c) Physiology
d) Zoology
Answer: b) Genetics

The fundamental unit of heredity is called:
a) Protein
b) Nucleotide
c) Gene
d) Chromosome
Answer: c) Gene

The complete set of genes present in an organism is called its:
a) Genome
b) Phenotype
c) Genotype
d) Allele
Answer: a) Genome

In a monohybrid cross, if a heterozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, what is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?
a) 3:1
b) 1:2:1
c) 1:1
d) 2:1
Answer: b) 1:2:1

Mendel’s law of segregation states that:
a) Genes located on the same chromosome assort independently during meiosis.
b) Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently during meiosis.
c) Each individual has two alleles for each gene, which segregate during gamete formation.
d) The expression of a trait is determined by the interaction of multiple genes.
Answer: c) Each individual has two alleles for each gene, which segregate during gamete formation.

In a dihybrid cross, if two individuals heterozygous for both traits are crossed, what is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?
a) 3:1
b) 1:2:1
c) 9:3:3:1
d) 1:1
Answer: c) 9:3:3:1

The observable characteristics of an organism, such as its physical appearance, are referred to as its:
a) Genotype
b) Alleles
c) Phenotype
d) Chromosomes
Answer: c) Phenotype

A genetic cross between two individuals with different phenotypes for a single trait is called a:
a) Monohybrid cross
b) Dihybrid cross
c) Test cross
d) Pedigree analysis
Answer: a) Monohybrid cross

A Punnett square is used to:
a) Predict the genotypic ratio of offspring in a genetic cross.
b) Predict the phenotypic ratio of offspring in a genetic cross.
c) Determine the probability of inheriting a specific trait.
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

The allele that is expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is called the:
a) Recessive allele
b) Dominant allele
c) Co-dominant allele
d) Incomplete dominant allele
Answer: b) Dominant allele

In humans, the inheritance of blood types (A, B, AB, O) is an example of:
a) Complete dominance
b) Co-dominance
c) Incomplete dominance
d) Multiple alleles
Answer: b) Co-dominance

A person with blood type O has which genotype?
a) OO
b) AA
c) AB
d) BB
Answer: a) OO

The sex chromosomes in humans are designated as:
a) X and Y
b) A and B
c) X and Z
d) Y and Z
Answer: a) X and Y

In mammals, including humans, males are heterogametic, which means they have:
a) Two X chromosomes
b) Two Y chromosomes
c) One X and one Y chromosome
d) One X chromosome only
Answer: c) One X and one Y chromosome

A carrier of a genetic disorder:
a) Always shows symptoms of the disorder.
b) Never passes the disorder to their offspring.
c) Has one copy of the mutated allele and one normal allele.
d) Is always homozygous for the mutated allele.
Answer: c) Has one copy of the mutated allele and one normal allele.

Hemophilia is a sex-linked disorder that primarily affects:
a) Females
b) Males
c) Both males and females equally
d) Neither males nor females
Answer: b) Males

A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 is called:
a) Turner syndrome
b) Down syndrome
c) Klinefelter syndrome
d) Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Answer: b) Down syndrome

A person with Turner syndrome has:
a) One X chromosome
b) Two X chromosomes
c) One X and one Y chromosome
d) No sex chromosomes
Answer: a) One X chromosome

The process by which DNA is copied to produce an RNA molecule is called:
a) Translation
b) Transcription
c) Replication
d) Transformation
Answer: b) Transcription

The three-base sequence on mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid is called a:
a) Codon
b) Anticodon
c) Promoter
d) Terminator
Answer: a) Codon

During translation, the amino acids are brought to the ribosome by molecules called:
a) mRNA
b) tRNA
c) rRNA
d) DNA
Answer: b) tRNA

The process by which the genetic information in mRNA is used to synthesize a protein is called:
a) Translation
b) Transcription
c) Replication
d) Transformation
Answer: a) Translation

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in protein synthesis?
a) Transcription, translation, replication
b) Replication, transcription, translation
c) Translation, replication, transcription
d) Transcription, replication, translation
Answer: b) Replication, transcription, translation

The genetic code is:
a) Universal, meaning it is the same in all organisms.
b) Specific to each organism, meaning it varies between species.
c) Only found in eukaryotes.
d) Based on the sequence of amino acids in proteins.
Answer: a) Universal, meaning it is the same in all organisms.

A mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide, causing a shift in the reading frame, is called a:
a) Silent mutation
b) Missense mutation
c) Nonsense mutation
d) Frameshift mutation
Answer: d) Frameshift mutation

The field of genetics that involves the study of the inheritance and expression of genes in populations is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: b) Population genetics

The study of the structure and function of individual genes is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: a) Molecular genetics

Which of the following techniques is used to analyze an individual’s DNA for the presence of specific genetic variations?
a) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
b) Gel electrophoresis
c) DNA sequencing
d) Hybridization
Answer: c) DNA sequencing

The process of cutting DNA molecules into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Restriction digestion
Answer: d) Restriction digestion

The technique used to separate DNA fragments based on their size and charge is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: d) Gel electrophoresis

Which of the following is NOT a type of genetic variation found in populations?
a) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
b) Insertion/deletion (indel)
c) Gene duplication
d) Transcription factor
Answer: d) Transcription factor

The process by which DNA from different sources is combined into a single molecule is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Hybridization
Answer: c) DNA cloning

The technique used to amplify a specific region of DNA is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: b) PCR

The study of the complete set of genes in an organism is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: d) Genomics

Which of the following techniques allows scientists to determine the precise order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule?
a) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
b) Gel electrophoresis
c) DNA sequencing
d) Hybridization
Answer: c) DNA sequencing

The study of the functions and interactions of all the proteins encoded by the genome of an organism is called:
a) Proteomics
b) Genomics
c) Transgenics
d) Pharmacogenomics
Answer: a) Proteomics

The technique used to determine the presence or absence of a specific DNA sequence in a sample is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA hybridization
d) DNA fingerprinting
Answer: c) DNA hybridization

The process of introducing new genes into an organism to give it new traits is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) Genetic engineering
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: c) Genetic engineering

The study of the genetic basis of drug response and the development of personalized medicine is called:
a) Pharmacogenomics
b) Genomics
c) Transgenics
d) Proteomics
Answer: a) Pharmacogenomics

The field of genetics that involves the creation of genetically modified organisms is called:
a) Pharmacogenomics
b) Genomics
c) Transgenics
d) Proteomics
Answer: c) Transgenics

The technique used to produce multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: b) PCR

Which of the following is an example of a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
a) A plant that is resistant to pests due to the insertion of a bacterial gene.
b) A dog that has been selectively bred for a particular trait.
c) A human with a genetic disorder caused by a mutation.
d) A wild bird with a naturally occurring color variation.
Answer: a) A plant that is resistant to pests due to the insertion of a bacterial gene.

The technique used to determine the presence or absence of specific proteins in a sample is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) Western blotting
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: c) Western blotting

The process of transferring genes from one organism to another using laboratory techniques is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Transfection
Answer: d) Transfection

The study of the inheritance and variation of traits in populations is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: b) Population genetics

Which of the following is an example of a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a single gene?
a) Down syndrome
b) Cystic fibrosis
c) Hemophilia
d) Turner syndrome
Answer: b) Cystic fibrosis

A pedigree is a diagram that:
a) Shows the inheritance of a trait in a family.
b) Displays the results of a DNA sequencing experiment.
c) Illustrates the process of DNA replication.
d) Represents the organization of genes on a chromosome.
Answer: a) Shows the inheritance of a trait in a family.

The pattern of inheritance in which both alleles contribute to the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is called:
a) Complete dominance
b) Co-dominance
c) Incomplete dominance
d) Polygenic inheritance
Answer: b) Co-dominance

The process of crossing two individuals with different desirable traits to produce offspring with both traits is called:
a) Genetic engineering
b) Hybridization
c) Inbreeding
d) Cloning
Answer: b) Hybridization

The study of the structure and organization of an individual’s entire genome is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: d) Genomics

The process of cutting and rejoining DNA fragments from different sources is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Genetic engineering
Answer: d) Genetic engineering

Which of the following is an example of a sex-linked trait?
a) Eye color in humans
b) Height in humans
c) Blood type in humans
d) Color blindness in humans
Answer: d) Color blindness in humans

The technique used to identify individuals based on their unique patterns of DNA sequences is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA profiling
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: c) DNA profiling

The study of how genes and the environment interact to influence phenotype is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Epigenetics
Answer: d) Epigenetics

The process by which genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA is called:
a) Transcription
b) Translation
c) Replication
d) Transformation
Answer: a) Transcription

The technique used to determine the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: a) DNA sequencing

A nucleotide is composed of:
a) A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
b) A sugar, a fatty acid, and a nitrogenous base.
c) A lipid, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
d) A protein, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Answer: a) A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

Which of the following is NOT a nitrogenous base found in DNA?
a) Adenine (A)
b) Guanine (G)
c) Thymine (T)
d) Uracil (U)
Answer: d) Uracil (U)

The two strands of DNA are held together by:
a) Hydrogen bonds between the sugar-phosphate backbones.
b) Covalent bonds between the nitrogenous bases.
c) Ionic bonds between the phosphate groups.
d) Peptide bonds between the nucleotides.
Answer: a) Hydrogen bonds between the sugar-phosphate backbones.

The structure of DNA is described as a:
a) Double helix
b) Single-stranded chain
c) Triple helix
d) Protein complex
Answer: a) Double helix

The process by which DNA is copied to produce an exact replica is called:
a) Transcription
b) Translation
c) Replication
d) Transformation
Answer: c) Replication

The enzyme responsible for adding new nucleotides to the growing DNA strand during replication is called:
a) DNA polymerase
b) RNA polymerase
c) DNA ligase
d) Helicase
Answer: a) DNA polymerase

The region of DNA where replication begins is called the:
a) Promoter
b) Terminator
c) Replication fork
d) Origin of replication
Answer: d) Origin of replication

The process by which DNA from different sources is combined into a single molecule is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Hybridization
Answer: c) DNA cloning

Which of the following is an example of a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
a) A plant that is resistant to pests due to the insertion of a bacterial gene.
b) A dog that has been selectively bred for a particular trait.
c) A human with a genetic disorder caused by a mutation.
d) A wild bird with a naturally occurring color variation.
Answer: a) A plant that is resistant to pests due to the insertion of a bacterial gene.

The process of cutting DNA molecules into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Restriction digestion
Answer: d) Restriction digestion

The technique used to separate DNA fragments based on their size and charge is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: d) Gel electrophoresis

The technique used to produce multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) DNA cloning
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: b) PCR

The study of the complete set of genes in an organism is called:
a) Molecular genetics
b) Population genetics
c) Genetic engineering
d) Genomics
Answer: d) Genomics

The technique used to determine the presence or absence of specific proteins in a sample is called:
a) DNA sequencing
b) PCR
c) Western blotting
d) Gel electrophoresis
Answer: c) Western blotting

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button